|عبد المجيد تبون|
|8th President of Algeria|
|Assumed office |
19 December 2019
|Prime Minister||Sabri Boukadoum (Acting)|
|Preceded by||Abdelkader Bensalah (Acting)|
|Minister of Defence|
|Assumed office |
19 December 2019
|Prime Minister||Sabri Boukadoum (Acting)|
|Preceded by||Ahmed Gaid Salah (Acting)|
Abdelaziz Bouteflika (de jure)
|16th Prime Minister of Algeria|
25 May 2017 – 15 August 2017
|Preceded by||Abdelmalek Sellal|
|Succeeded by||Ahmed Ouyahia|
|Born||17 November 1945|
|Political party||National Liberation Front|
Abdelmadjid Tebboune (Arabic: عبد المجيد تبون, romanized: ʿAbd al-Majīd Tabbūn; born 17 November 1945) is an Algerian politician currently serving as the President of Algeria since December 2019 and as Minister of Defence. He took over the power from former President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and former Acting Head of State Abdelkader Bensalah. Previously, he was Prime Minister of Algeria from May 2017 to August 2017. In addition, he was also Minister of Housing from 2001 to 2002 for a year and again from 2012 to 2017 for 5 years.
Early life and education
Abdelmadjid Tebboune was born on November 17, 1945, in Mécheria, in the current Naâma Province, in Algeria, back then Aïn-Sefra territory. He comes from a family from the commune of Boussemghoun, currently in El Bayadh Province, located in the region of the High Plains of southwest Algeria. His father is a sheikh member of the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulema (and Abdelmadjid studied in a school who is controlled by the Association of Ulema in Sidi Bel Abbes before and the start of Algerian War between 1953 and 1954). and also a soldier. His mother is a peasant woman. He is married to Fatima Zohra Bella, and has five children: Saloua, Maha, Salaheddine Ilyes, Mohamed and Khaled.
Tebboune was Minister-Delegate for Local Government from 1991 to 1992, during the last months of Chadli Benjedid's presidency. Later, under President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, he served in the government as Minister of Communication and Culture from 1999 to 2000 and then as Minister-Delegate for Local Government from 2000 to 2001. He was the Minister of Housing and Urban Planning from 2001 to 2002. Ten years later, in 2012, he returned to the post of Minister of Housing in the government of Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal. He was also found in the Panama Papers.
Following the May 2017 parliamentary election, President Bouteflika appointed Tebboune to succeed Sellal as Prime Minister on 24 May 2017. The appointment of Tebboune was considered surprising by Algerian political elites, who had expected Sellal to be reappointed. The new government headed by Tebboune was appointed on 25 May.
On 12 December 2019, Tebboune was appointed president following the 2019 Algerian presidential election, after taking 58% from a turnout of less than 40% the voters, against candidates from both main parties (the National Liberation Front and the Democratic National Rally). On 19 December, he assumed office and received the National Order of Merit from the acting President Abdelkader Bensalah.
On the eve of the first anniversary of the Hirak Movement, President Abdelmadjid Tebboune announced in a statement to the Algerian national media that 22 February would be declared the Algerian "National Day of Fraternity and Cohesion Between The People and Its Army For Democracy." In the same statement, Tebboune spoke in favor of the Hirak Movement, saying that "the blessed Hirak has preserved the country from a total collapse" and that he had "made a personal commitment to carry out all of the [movement's] demands." On 21 and 22 February 2020, masses of demonstrators (with turnout comparable to well-established Algerian holidays like the Algerian Day of Independence) gathered to honor the anniversary of the Hirak Movement and the newly established national day.
In an effort to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, Tebboune announced on 17 March 2020 that "marches and rallies, whatever their motives" would be prohibited. After protestors and journalists were arrested for participating in such marches, Tebboune faced accusations of attempting to "silence Algerians." Notably, the government's actions were condemned by Amnesty International, which said in a statement that "when all eyes [...] are on the management of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Algerian authorities are devoting time to speeding up the prosecution and trial of activists, journalists, and supporters of the Hirak movement." CNLD estimated that around 70 prisoners of conscience were imprisoned by 2 July 2020 and that several of the imprisoned were arrested for Facebook posts.
On 28 December 2019, the then-recently inaugurated President Tebboune met with Ahmed Benbitour, the former Algerian Head of Government, with whom he discussed the "foundations of the new Republic."
On 8 January 2020, Tebboune established a "commission of experts" composed of 17 members (a majority of which were professors of constitutional law) responsible for examining the previous constitution and making any necessary revisions. Led by Ahmed Laraba, the commission was required to submit its proposals to Tebboune directly within the following two months. In a letter to Laraba on the same day, Tebboune outlined seven axes around which the commission should focus its discussion. These areas of focus included strengthening citizens' rights, combatting corruption, consolidating the balance of powers in the Algerian government, increasing the oversight powers of parliament, promoting the independence of the judiciary, furthering citizens' equality under the law, and constitutionalizing elections. Tebboune's letter also included a call for an "immutable and intangible" two-term limit to anyone serving as president — a major point of contention in the initial Hirak Movement protests, which were spurred by former president Abdelaziz Bouteflika's announced intention to run for a fifth term.
In January 2020, Tebboune also instructed Prime Minister Djerad to prepare a bill against all forms of racism, regionalism and hate speech based on political convictions, religion, belief or race.
The preliminary draft revision of the constitution was publicly published on 7 May 2020, but the Laraba Commission (as the "commission of experts" came to be known) was open to additional proposals from the public until 20 June. By 3 June, the commission had received an estimated 1,200 additional public proposals. After all revisions were considered by the Laraba Commission, the draft was introduced to the Cabinet of Algeria (Council of Ministers).
On 4 July 2020, Tebboune announced that the referendum would occur in September or October 2020.
The revised constitution was adopted in the Council of Ministers on 6 September, in the People's National Assembly on 10 September, and Council of the Nation on 12 September, but its implementation was contingent on the results of the 1 November referendum.
In October 2020, Tebboune was tested positive for COVID-19 and flew to Germany for treatment. Meanwhile, prime minister Abdelaziz Djerad assumed his tasks. On 29 December 2020, Tebboune resumed his duties.
The constitutional changes were approved on the 1 November 2020 referendum, with 66.68% of voters participating in favour of the changes.
On 16 February 2021 mass protests and a wave of nationwide rallies and peaceful demonstrations against the government of Abdelmadjid Tebboune began. On 18 February 2021, Tebboune announced changes to the cabinet. He dismissed the Minister of Energy, the Minister of Industry, and the Minister of Water Resources among others. He also dissolved the lower house of the Algerian Parliament and called early legislative elections within six months.
On 28 July 2021, Tebboune stated that Algeria offers Libya "total assistance," as he was hosting Mohammad Younes el-Menfi, the president of Libya's Presidency Council.
On 24 January 2022, Tebboune visited Egypt's President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi in Cairo. They discussed bilateral relations, the situation in Libya after the indefinite postponement of elections, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, and the potential return of Syria to the Arab League. It was the first official visit of an Algerian president to Cairo since 2008.
On 15 February 2022, Tebboune announced that the government will introduce unemployment benefits for young adults, despite the country's over 15% unemployment rate. The president announced that payments to job hunters aged 19 to 40 will begin in March, with the goal of preserving "young people's dignity." He also stated that the increase in the disputes between his country and Morocco is due to Israeli intervention.
- "Algeria: Tensions mount as Tebboune and Chengriha butt heads". The Africa Report.com. 2020-10-19. Retrieved 2020-10-20.
- "Algeria minister to reshuffle housing directors". الشروق أونلاين (in Arabic). 2013-02-06. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
- Lamlili, Nadia (2017-05-25). "Premier ministre d'Abdelaziz Bouteflika ?" [Abdelaziz Bouteflika's Prime Minister?]. Jeune Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on November 2, 2019. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
- "ELECTION POLITIQUE CITOYEN". www.election-politique.com. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
- "Algérie : Abdelmadjid Tebboune, un président entre les mains de l'armée". La Croix (in French). 2019-12-15. ISSN 0242-6056. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
- "Abdelmadjid Tebboune, à peine élu, déjà constesté à la présidence de l'Algérie". LEFIGARO (in French). Retrieved 2021-06-07.
- "Algérie : les défis d'Abdelmadjid Tebboune, nouveau président d'un pays sous tension – Jeune Afrique". JeuneAfrique.com (in French). 2019-12-13. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
- Beau, Nicolas (2020-11-15). "Le pouvoir algérien, un bateau sans capitaine". Mondafrique (in French). Retrieved 2021-06-08.
- "Algérie: comment Abdelmadjid Tebboune met la fonction de chef de l'État au service de ses enfants". fr.le360.ma (in French). 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
- "Journal officiel de la République algérienne" (PDF). Official Journal of the Algerian Republic. 29 July 1969.
- "Algerian energy, finance ministers replaced in reshuffle - APS". Reuters. 24 May 2017.
- Lamin chikhi (15 August 2017). "Algeria recalls veteran crisis manager Ouyahia as Prime Minister". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017.
- "Le Premier Ministre prend ses fonctions". Official website of the Prime Minister of Algeria (in French). 16 August 2017.
- "Algeria election: Ex-PM to replace Bouteflika after boycotted poll". BBC. 13 December 2019.
- "FLN et RND : La fin des "partis du pouvoir"". El Watan (in French). 15 Dec 2019. Retrieved 15 Dec 2019.
- "بن صالح يقلد تبون وسام الإستحقاق الوطني". ennaharonline.com (in Arabic). 19 December 2019.
- "Le Président Tebboune assure que le Hirak est un phénomène salutaire et met en garde contre toute tentative d'infiltration" (in French). 20 February 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Aichoun, Abdelghani (22 February 2020). "Grande Mobilisation du hirak pour son premier anniversaire : Plus vigoureux que jamais !" (in French). Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Hamadi, Ryar (22 February 2020). "Anniversaire du Hirak : des milliers de personnes empêchées de marcher sur El Mouradia" (in French). Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Makedhi, Madjid (18 March 2020). "Abdelmadjid Tebboune assure que l'état a pris ses dispositions pour lutter contre le coronavirus : "Des moyens supplémentaires seront engagés"" (in French). Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- "La liberté de la presse se dégrade en Algérie" (in French). 2 May 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- "Defend the right to protest in Algeria". amnesty.org. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
- "En Algérie, la justice libère Karim Tabbou, Amira Bouraoui, Samir Benlarbi et Slimane Hamitouche, figures de la contestation". Le Monde.fr (in French). 2 July 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- "Tebboune nomme Mohand Oussaïd Belaïd porte-parole de la présidence et reçoit Benbitour" (in French). 29 December 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- "Algérie: le président Tebboune nomme une commission pour réviser la Constitution" (in French). 9 January 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- "Révision de la Constitution : Tebboune nomme un comité d'experts". TSA (in French). 8 January 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
- "Révision de la Constitution : Tebboune trace sept axes principaux". TSA (in French). 8 January 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
- "Algeria: Fight Against Hate Speech - President Tebboune Instructed Djerad to Develop Bill". allAfrica.com. 2020-01-13. Retrieved 2021-03-23.
- "Fight against Hate Speech in Algeria: What Role Does Education Have to Play? |". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-03-23.
- "Révision de la constitution : la nature du régime et l'identité " non concernées par les amendements "" (in French). 3 June 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Mehenni, Ouramdane (4 July 2020). "Nouvelle Constitution : Tebboune annonce un référendum en septembre ou octobre" (in French). Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- "Algeria to hold promised constitution referendum on November 1". 24 August 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Oul, Ahmed (7 September 2020). "Révision de la Constitution algérienne : Voici les principaux axes" (in French). Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Litamine, Khelifa (10 September 2020). "APN : Le projet de la révision constitutionnelle adopté à la majorité" (in French). Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- "Conseil de la Nation: adoption du texte de loi relatif à la révision de la Constitution" (in French). 12 September 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Rippin, Tara (2020-12-12). "Algerian President 'disappears' after flying to Germany for Covid treatment". Euro Weekly News Spain. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
- "Algerian President Tebboune returns after Covid treatment in Germany". BBC News. 2020-12-29. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
- Ahmed, Hamid Ould (2021-01-10). "Algerian president returns to Germany to be treated for COVID-19 complications". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
- "Algeria's Tebboune returns home after hospitalisation in Germany". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
- AfricaNews (2021-02-22). "Algerian President Reshuffles Government Without Major Cabinet Changes". Africanews. Retrieved 2021-03-04.
- "Algeria's president dissolves parliament, calls for early elections". France 24. 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-03-04.
- "Algeria's President Tebboune announces new government". France 24. 2021-07-07. Retrieved 2021-08-08.
- "Tebboune meets Menfi, offers Algeria's support to Libya". The Arab Weekly. The Arab Weekly. The Arab Weekly. 29 July 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- "French foreign minister makes surprise visit to Algeria, urges easing of Paris-Algiers tensions". France 24. 2021-12-08. Retrieved 2021-12-16.
- "Egypt: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi Receives Algerian President". allAfrica.com. 2022-01-26. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
- "Algeria's leader in Egypt for talks on Libya, Ethiopia dam". Midland Daily News. 2022-01-24. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
- "Sisi, Algerian president agree on necessity of holding Libya's delayed elections - Foreign Affairs - Egypt". Ahram Online. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
- "Egypt and Algeria move closer - Egypt - Al-Ahram Weekly". Ahram Online. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
- anatolianet (2022-01-24). "Algeria's Tebboune arrives in Egypt for official visit". TurkishPress. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
- "Unemployed youth in Algeria to receive monthly pay". Africanews. Africanews. Africanews. 16 February 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- "Tebboune: Israel backs widening Algeria-Morocco dispute". Middle East Monitor. Middle East Monitor. Middle East Monitor. 17 February 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- "الرئيس ونظيره الجزائري يتبادلان الأوسمة". WAFA Agency. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
- "Tebboune décoré du grand cordon du mérite national". Retrieved 2021-12-15.