|Città di Acireale|
Piazza del Duomo
|Metropolitan city||Catania (CT)|
|• Mayor||Stefano Alì|
|• Total||39 km2 (15 sq mi)|
|Elevation||102 m (335 ft)|
(31 May 2016)
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||St. Venera and St. Sebastian|
|Saint day||26 July and 20 January|
Acireale (Italian: [ˌatʃireˈaːle]; Sicilian: Jaciriali, locally shortened to Jaci or Aci) is a coastal city and comune in the north-east of the Metropolitan City of Catania, Sicily, southern Italy, at the foot of Mount Etna, on the coast facing the Ionian Sea. It is home to numerous churches, including the Neo-Gothic St. Peter's Basilica, St. Sebastian's Basilica in the Sicilian Baroque style, and the 17th century Acireale Cathedral, and a seminary, for the training of priests. Acireale is also noted for its art and paintings: the oldest academy in Sicily, the "Accademia dei Dafnici e degli Zelanti", is located here.
According to tradition, the city's origins trace back to Xiphonia, a mysterious Greek city now completely disappeared. In Roman times, there existed another Greek town, Akis, which was involved in the Punic Wars. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, there is a great love between Ā́cis, the spirit of the Ā́cis River, and Galatea the sea-nymph. According to mythology, the tears of Galatea after the death of Ā́cis gave birth to the Ā́cis River, Fiume di Jaci, flowing past Acireale (the ancient Akis or Acium). The Romans called the town Acium, and it was on the main road from Catana to Tauromenium. The Romans used the thermal springs located here.
In the Middle Ages, the town expanded around the castle (now part of Aci Castello), known as Jachium under the Byzantines, as Al-Yāj (الياج) under the Arabs, and, later, as Aquilia. In 1169, a huge earthquake scattered the population of the mainland, divided between the numerous boroughs of Aci. Another Aquilia was founded in the late 14th century further north, creating the nucleus of the modern city. The only remains of the medieval Aquilia Nova ("New Aquilia") is the Gothic-Lombard-styled portal of the church of Saint Anthony (in Italian language called "chiesa di Sant'Antonino di Padova").
In the 16th century, Emperor Charles V freed the city from feudal ties, creating it as a Crown commune. In the late 16th century, the town had between 6,000 and 7,000 inhabitants. The most ancient document mentioning the Carnival of Acireale dates to 1594. The town expanded its role as a trade center (it was granted the right to hold a Free Market or Fiera Franca) and received numerous new edifices.
Acireale was nearly destroyed by an earthquake in 1693, which substantially halted its economic growth. During the Expedition of the Thousand (1861), which freed Sicily from the Kingdom of Naples, Acireale was the first town to rebel against the Bourbons. In 1941, it was bombed by the Allies, resulting in many civilian casualties.
Villa Belvedere and Parco delle Terme, two large public parks and "La Timpa", a beautiful natural reserve overlooking the Ionian Sea, offer great nature sights. Piazza Duomo, with its St. Peter's Basilica, is in the main square of the city. There are many beautiful historic Baroque buildings in town, such as Palazzo Pennisi and Palazzo Modò, which date from the 17th century, and Palazzo Musmeci dating from the 18th century. The commercial city center is primarily located in the streets including and adjacent to Corso Umberto and Corso Italia, which are the city's principal thoroughfares.
The Fortezza del Tocco, a 16th-century fort, has been converted to a nature reserve.
Acireale houses costumes and floats parades during the carnival season.
Twin towns – sister cities
Acireale is twinned with:
- "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 148. .
- Antonine Itinerary, p. 87 ed. Parthey; Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Acium". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.