|Directed by||Ang Lee|
|Based on||"Brokeback Mountain"|
by Annie Proulx
|Music by||Gustavo Santaolalla|
|Distributed by||Focus Features|
|Box office||$178.1 million|
Brokeback Mountain is a 2005 American neo-Western romantic drama film directed by Ang Lee and produced by Diana Ossana and James Schamus. Adapted from the 1997 short story of the same name by Annie Proulx, the screenplay was written by Ossana and Larry McMurtry. The film stars Heath Ledger, Jake Gyllenhaal, Anne Hathaway, and Michelle Williams and depicts the complex romantic relationship between two American cowboys, Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist, in the American West from 1963 to 1983.
Lee became attached to the project in 2001 after previous attempts to adapt Proulx's story into a film did not materialize. Focus Features and River Road Entertainment would jointly produce and distribute the film. After Ledger and Gyllenhaal's casting was announced in 2003, filming commenced in various locations in Alberta, Canada, in 2004. Brokeback Mountain premiered at the 2005 Venice International Film Festival, where it won the Golden Lion, and was released to theaters on December 9 that year.
The film received universal acclaim, with particular praise for the performances of Ledger and Gyllenhaal, and was a commercial success, grossing over $178 million worldwide against its $14 million budget. At the 78th Academy Awards, Brokeback Mountain was nominated for Best Picture and won for Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Original Score. It garnered seven nominations at the 63rd Golden Globe Awards, and won four awards. At the 59th British Academy Film Awards, Brokeback Mountain was nominated for nine awards, winning Best Film, Best Direction, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Supporting Actor (Gyllenhaal).
Brokeback Mountain was subject to controversies; its loss to Crash (2004) for the Academy Award for Best Picture, subsequent censorship, and criticism from conservative media outlets received significant attention. The sexuality of the main characters has been subject to discussion. Brokeback Mountain has also been regarded as a turning point for the advancement of queer cinema into the mainstream. In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
In Wyoming in 1963, cowboys Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist are hired by foreman Joe Aguirre to herd his sheep through the summer on grazing pastures on Brokeback Mountain. After a night of heavy drinking, Jack makes a pass at Ennis. While initially reluctant, Ennis becomes receptive, and he and Jack have sex in their tent. Despite Ennis telling Jack that it was a one-time incident, they develop a sexual and emotional relationship. Before parting ways, Ennis and Jack have a brawl that leaves both of them bloodied. Ennis later marries his longtime fiancée Alma Beers and has two daughters with her–Alma Jr. and Jenny. Jack returns the next summer seeking work, but Aguirre, who had observed Jack and Ennis on the mountain, refuses to hire him again. Jack moves to Texas, where he meets wealthy rodeo rider Lureen Newsome; they marry and have a son.
After four years apart, Jack visits Ennis. Upon meeting, the two passionately kiss, which a stunned Alma inadvertently witnesses. Jack broaches the subject of creating a life with Ennis on a ranch, but Ennis refuses, as he is unwilling to abandon his family and is haunted by a childhood memory of his father showing him the body of a man who was tortured and killed for suspected homosexuality. Ennis and Jack continue to infrequently meet for fishing trips while their respective marriages deteriorate. Lureen abandons the rodeo and goes into business with her father, which causes Jack to work in sales. Alma and Ennis divorce in 1975. Upon hearing about the divorce, Jack drives to Wyoming and tells Ennis that they should live together, but Ennis refuses to move away from his children. Upset, Jack finds solace with male prostitutes in Mexico.
Alma takes custody of Alma Jr. and Jenny and marries Monroe, her store manager. She eventually confronts Ennis when he visits about the true nature of his relationship with Jack; the two spar, causing Ennis to cease contact with Alma. Ennis has a short-lived romantic relationship with a waitress named Cassie. Jack and Lureen befriend another couple, Randall and Lashawn Malone, and it is implied that Jack and Randall have a brief affair. At the end of a fishing trip, Ennis tells Jack that he cannot see him again before November due to work demands. The pair argue, blaming each other for their not being together. Ennis begins to cry, and Jack embraces him.
Sometime later, Ennis receives a returned postcard that he had sent to Jack, stamped with "Deceased". He calls Lureen, who says that Jack died in an accident from drowning in his own blood after a car tire exploded in his face. While she is describing what happened, two men beating Jack to death with a tire iron are shown. After Lureen tells him that Jack wanted to have his ashes scattered on Brokeback Mountain, Ennis visits Jack's parents in hopes of carrying out the request. Jack's father refuses and contends that Jack's ashes will be interred in a family plot. Ennis goes to Jack's bedroom, where he finds the shirts the two wore during their brawl, his shirt inside Jack's, in the closet. Ennis holds the shirts to his face, inhales deeply, and silently weeps. Jack's mother allows him to keep the shirts.
Later, a 19-year-old Alma Jr. arrives at Ennis's trailer to tell him that she is engaged. She asks for his blessing and invites him to the wedding, and after some hesitation, he agrees to attend. Once Alma Jr. leaves, Ennis goes to the closet where the two shirts hang together, though now Ennis's shirt is outermost. Next to them, tacked to the closet door, is a postcard of Brokeback Mountain. With tears in his eyes, he stares at the mementos, and says, "Jack, I swear..."
- Heath Ledger as Ennis Del Mar, a Wyoming sheepherder who develops an emotional relationship with Jack, although Ennis is reluctant in displaying affection.
- Jake Gyllenhaal as Jack Twist, a fellow sheepherder that meets Ennis at work, and attempts to persuade him to have a future together.
- Michelle Williams as Alma Beers Del Mar, Ennis' wife
- Anne Hathaway as Lureen Newsome Twist, Jack's wife
- Randy Quaid as Joe Aguirre
- Linda Cardellini as Cassie Cartwright
- Anna Faris as Lashawn Malone
- David Harbour as Randall Malone
- Roberta Maxwell as Mrs. Twist
- Peter McRobbie as John Twist
- Kate Mara as Alma Del Mar Jr.
- Scott Michael Campbell as Monroe
- Graham Beckel as L.D. Newsome
- Mary Liboiron as Fayette Newsome
- Larry Reese as Jolly Minister
- Marty Antonini as Timmy
Screenwriter Diana Ossana discovered Annie Proulx's short story, Brokeback Mountain, in October 1997, just days after its publication. She convinced writing partner Larry McMurtry to read it, who thought it was a "masterpiece". The pair asked Proulx if they could adapt it into a film screenplay; although she did not think that the story would work as a film, she agreed. In a 1999 interview with The Missouri Review, Proulx praised their screenplay. Ossana said that convincing a director and production company to make the film was a challenging and nonstop process. Gus Van Sant attempted to make the film, hoping to cast Matt Damon and Joaquin Phoenix as Ennis and Jack, respectively. He also considered Leonardo DiCaprio, Brad Pitt and Ryan Phillippe. Josh Hartnett was originally attached to the film but dropped out due to scheduling conflicts with The Black Dahlia. Damon, who previously worked with Van Sant on Good Will Hunting, told the director, "Gus, I did a gay movie (The Talented Mr. Ripley), then a cowboy movie (All the Pretty Horses). I can't follow it up with a gay-cowboy movie!" Instead, Van Sant went on to make the 2008 biographical film Milk, based on the life of gay rights activist and politician Harvey Milk. Edward Norton and Joel Schumacher were also linked with the project at one point.
Focus Features CEO James Schamus optioned the film rights in 2001, but thought it was a risky project. At Ossana's request, Schamus showed the story and screenplay to director Ang Lee. Lee decided to make Hulk instead; his experience of Hulk, and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon from two years prior left him exhausted. In 2003, he considered retirement but Brokeback Mountain came back to his mind and tempted him back into filmmaking. Lee attempted to get the film made as an independent producer. However, this did not work out, and before Lee would take a break after finishing Hulk, he contacted Schamus about Brokeback Mountain. Schamus thought Brokeback Mountain embraces the American West without being a traditional Western, and told Lee that he should consider directing it. Lee said, "Towards the end [of the script] ... I got tears in my eyes". He was particularly drawn to the authentic rural American life and repression depicted in the story. Bill Pohlad of River Road Entertainment, who had a two-year partnership with Focus Features, helped finance the film.
Casting director Avy Kaufman said Lee was very decisive about the actors for the lead roles. In 2003, screenwriters Ossana and McMurty suggested Heath Ledger (after being impressed by his performance in Monster's Ball), but the film studio thought he was not masculine enough. Regardless, Kaufman sent the script to Ledger, who thought it was "beautiful" and put himself forward. Gyllenhaal reacted to the script positively and signed on for the role; he also did not want to miss the opportunity working with Lee and friend Ledger. Gyllenhaal admired Ledger and described him as "way beyond his years as a human". Other actors were considered for the leads but Lee said they were too afraid to take on the roles.
From the beginning, Ledger wanted to portray Ennis and not Jack. He opined that Ennis was more complex; a masculine and homophobic character. Ledger said, "The lack of words he [Ennis] had to express himself, his inability to love", made the role enjoyable. Ledger, who grew up around horses, researched his character's personal traits, and learned to speak in Wyoming and Texas accents. Lee gave Ledger and Gyllenhaal books about cowboys who were gay or shared similar experiences as the characters depicted in Proulx's book. Ledger and Gyllenhaal also went to a ranch on the outskirts of Los Angeles and learned to ride horses. Gyllenhaal later said:
That what ties these two characters together is not just a love, but a loneliness. I think primarily it was deep loneliness. And what I always say about that movie [Brokeback Mountain], which I think maybe over time is more understood, is that this is about two people desperately looking for love. To be loved. And who were probably capable of it. And they just found it with someone of the same sex. And that does not dismiss the fact that it is about, really, primarily, the first kind of very profound gay love story. Hopefully it can create an equality of an idea: that is, it's possible that you can find love anywhere. That intimacy exists in so many places that convention and society won't always allow us to see. And we won't allow ourselves to see, because of what criticism—and danger, really—it might provoke.
Lee interviewed between 20 and 30 actresses for the roles of Alma and Lureen. Michelle Williams was one of the first to audition for the role of Alma, and Lee thought she was perfect for the part. Anne Hathaway, who was filming The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement at the time, showed up to the audition during her lunch break. She was wearing a ball gown and hairpiece "that was way over the top", but she still felt focused for the audition. At first, Lee did not think she was an obvious choice, but he was convinced with her audition and cast her as Lureen. Hathaway lied to Lee about her knowledge of horse riding in order to cast her. She took lessons for two months to prepare.
Lee was happy with Ledger and Gyllenhaal portraying Ennis and Jack, respectively, because he thought their "young innocence" will help carry a love story until the end. Lee added, "I think these two are among the best in their age group [...] Jake plays the opposite of Heath and it creates a very good couple in terms of a romantic love story. The chemistry, I think, is great." Once all four leads were cast, Lee remembered being impressed with their maturity despite their young age; "It really scared me how good they were".
Principal photography began in the summer of 2004. While the novel is set in Wyoming, Brokeback Mountain was filmed almost entirely in the Canadian Rockies in southern Alberta. Lee was given a tour of the locations from the story in Wyoming by Proulx, but chose to shoot in Alberta citing financial reasons. The mountain featured in the film is a composite of Mount Lougheed south of the town of Canmore, Fortress and Moose Mountain in Kananaskis Country. The campsites were filmed at Goat Creek, Upper Kananaskis Lake, Elbow Falls and Canyon Creek, also in Alberta. Other scenes were filmed in Cowley, Fort Macleod, and Calgary. Brokeback Mountain's production budget was approximately US$14 million.
Initially, Alberta's environmental department prohibited the crew from bringing domestic sheep into the Rockies, due to a risk of disease harming the local wildlife. The authorities eventually gave permission for them to shoot on one mountain, as long as they transported the domestic sheep in and out, every day. A biologist was hired to supervise this process.
Lee prefers working with cinematographers who are open minded, eager to learn, and able to show an interest in the story and content before talking about the visuals. Therefore, he selected Rodrigo Prieto for the job; saying, "I think he's versatile, and I wanted somebody who could shoot quickly [...] he was able to give me the tranquil, almost passive look I wanted for Brokeback. I believe a talent's a talent".
Ledger and Gyllenhaal, who were friends before Brokeback Mountain, were mostly unconcerned with the intimate scenes. The first sex scene between Ennis and Jack took 13 takes to meet Lee's expectation. The director would keep his distance from them during filming, allowing the actors to be free and spontaneous. Lee said, "I don't talk too much [to them] except for technical notes. So they [the intimate scenes] are a lot easier to deal with". Ledger was observant of Lee's directing style, saying, "There's two sides to Ang's direction — there's the pre-production, which is incredibly thorough and private, and then there's the shooting side, when he just doesn't say anything at all." Ledger said that this helped him try harder during takes. Gyllenhaal echoed Ledger's sentiment; "He just totally disconnects from you while you're shooting", but praised Lee's directorial skills. In regards to acting, Ledger was sometimes disrupted by Gyllenhaal's acting style; Gyllenhaal tended to improvise whereas Ledger preferred to be highly prepared. The director allowed Ledger to see his performance on the camera monitor so that he could improve.
During the last scenes where Ennis meets Jack's parents, production designer Judy Becker was tasked in finding a suitable house. Lee took inspiration from painters Andrew Wyeth and Vilhelm Hammershoi for the white interior walls. Using two cameras, Lee would capture the actors from both angles, and then change lenses and repeat. "When you edit it together, you can apply certain emphasis to certain reactions, emotions", Lee said. Ossana remembers that the last scenes were emotional for Ledger and personally affected him. The actors who played Jack's parents, Roberta Maxwell and Peter McRobbie, said Ledger was very quiet and gave a "powerful performance".
...in the old-school way, people really used to spend their time together. They became a family. And that's what Ang created on the movie. It's why we are all still close — not just bonded by the success of the film, but bonded by the experience. It was an intimate project in that way. We'd wake up and make breakfast for each other, and hang out.
—Gyllenhaal on the film's experience
Executive producer Michael Hausman rented Airstream trailers for the cast and crew to sleep in. He created an on-set atmosphere which mimicked a summer camp, where people could bond and feel close. Hausman recalled that they would sit around the fireplaces, cook food and go fishing on the creek. The production was not without commotion; the cast suffered several injuries during filming. Williams sprained her knee in the early days of filming, therefore, her character's movements were altered to be either sitting or standing most of the time. Ledger also injured his hand when he punched a wall for a scene. During a kissing scene, Ledger almost broke Gyllenhaal's nose. The American Humane raised concerns that animals were treated improperly during filming, alleging that sheep were handled roughly and that an elk appeared to have been "shot on cue." They learned that the elk was shot with anesthetic, violating standard guidelines for animal handling in the film industry.
During post-production, Geraldine Peroni and Dylan Tichenor served as film editors, but Peroni died in August 2004 and Tichenor took over. The pair relied on Media Composer for editing, and sound engineer Eugene Gearty used Pro Tools for the creation of sound effects. Buzz Image Group were hired to create 75 visual effect shots, including computer-generated clouds, landscapes and sheep. For the film's theatrical poster, Schamus took inspiration from James Cameron's Titanic, which depicts two star-crossed lovers.
Gustavo Santaolalla scored the film's soundtrack, which consists of seventeen tracks as well as songs from Bob Dylan and Roger Miller. The album was released on October 25, 2005. Based on the story and one conversation with the director, Santaolalla was able to score the music before filming began. He said, "I mean if you are connected to the story and to the director, it makes a lot of sense because somehow you know, the music then becomes a part of the fabric of that film from the very beginning." He also used a real orchestra and played his own guitar.
The film received a limited release in the United States on December 9, 2005, and grossed $547,425 in its first weekend. Over the Christmas weekend, and beginning of January 2006, the film expanded into more domestic theaters. On January 20, the film opened in 1,194 theaters, then 1,652 theaters on January 27, and 2,089 theaters on February 3, its widest release.
Brokeback Mountain was released in one theater in London on December 30 and received a wider release in the United Kingdom on January 6, 2006. The film was released in France on January 18, to 155 theaters, expanding to 290 by the third week. In its first week of release, Brokeback Mountain was in third place at the French box office. In Italy, the film grossed more than €890,000 in three days and was the fourth highest-grossing film in its first week. The film was released in Australia on January 26, where it ranked fourth place at the weekend box office. Brokeback Mountain was released in many other countries during the first three months of 2006. During its first week of release in Hong Kong, Brokeback Mountain was ranked first place at the box office, earning more than US$473,868 ($22,565 per theater). The film opened in Lee's native Taiwan on January 20. The film grossed $83 million in North America and $95 million internationally, for a worldwide $178 million. It is the highest-grossing release for Focus Features.
The film has been given different titles in accordance to different languages and regions. For the film's release in French and Italian, it was titled Le Secret de Brokeback Mountain and I segreti di Brokeback Mountain (The Secret(s) of Brokeback Mountain), respectively. In Canadian French, the title is Souvenirs de Brokeback Mountain (Memories of Brokeback Mountain). The film received two Spanish titles: Brokeback Mountain: En terreno vedado (In a forbidden terrain) for its release in Spain and Secreto en la Montaña (Secret in the mountain) for its release in Latin America. In Hungarian, the title was Túl a barátságon (Beyond friendship).
I think they are genuinely happy to see a Chinese director win an Academy Award with good artistic value. I think that pride is genuine, so I would not think that's hypocritical at all [...] I don't know how to describe it, it's just something else. So what can I say?
—Ang Lee, responding to being celebrated in China for winning the Best Director Academy Award, although the film was not released there.
The film was met with mixed responses in some regions, particularly China and Islamic nations of western Asia. According to reports, the film was not shown in theaters in China, though it was freely available in bootleg DVD and VHS. The Chinese government said the audience would have been too small; the foreign media accused the government of censorship. The word "brokeback" (Chinese: 断背; pinyin: duànbèi) also entered the Chinese lexicon as a slang for homosexuality. The film was dubbed "the gay cowboy movie" by the press, a term that was propelled into the American vernacular. The film was also released in Turkey.
In the Middle East, distribution of the film became a political issue. Homosexuality is considered a crime in most Islamic nations and is taboo in the few countries where it is legal. Lebanon was the only Arab country to show the film, although in a censored format. The film was officially banned from screenings in the United Arab Emirates; however, the DVD of the film was permitted to be rented from stores such as Blockbuster Video.
On December 8, 2008, the Italian state-owned television channel Rai Due aired a censored version of the film, removing all the scenes with homoerotic references. Viewers protested, saying the deletions made the plot hard to follow. The Arcigay organisation accused the channel of homophobic censorship. The state-owned television network RAI said the Italian film distributor had mistakenly censored the film. RAI showed an uncensored version of the film on March 17, 2009.
Brokeback Mountain was the first major film to be released simultaneously on both DVD and digital download via the Internet. It was released in the United States on April 4, 2006. More than 1 million copies of the DVD were sold in the first week, and it was the third-biggest seller of the week, behind Disney's The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and King Kong. Although the ranking fluctuated daily, by late March and early April 2006, Brokeback Mountain had been the top-selling DVD on Amazon.com for several days running.
The DVD in Europe was released in the UK on April 24, 2006. This was followed by France in July, and Poland in September, a considerable time after the theater release in both countries. Brokeback Mountain was re-released in a collector's edition on January 23, 2007. On the same day, it was also released in HD DVD format. The film was released on Blu-ray in the UK on August 13, 2007, and in the U.S. on March 10, 2009. The Blu-ray contains special features including interviews with the screenwriters, director and a short documentary about composer Gustavo Santaolalla.
Brokeback Mountain was released to critical acclaim. On the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 87% based on 247 reviews, with an average rating of 8.2/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "A beautifully epic Western, Brokeback Mountain's love story is imbued with heartbreaking universality, helped by moving performances by Heath Ledger and Jake Gyllenhaal." On Metacritic, the film has a rating of 87/100 based on 41 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim."
David Ansen of Newsweek gave the film a positive review, praising the faithful screenplay. He adds, "There's neither coyness nor self-importance in Brokeback Mountain—just close, compassionate observation, deeply committed performances, a bone-deep feeling for hardscrabble Western lives. Few films have captured so acutely the desolation of frustrated, repressed passion." Writing for The Guardian, Peter Bradshaw praised Ledger and Gyllenhaal for their complementary performances. Bradshaw thought the film was "extremely moving, tragic even, and sensitive towards the feelings of the simple wives who attempt to understand their troubled husbands." Ann Hornaday of The Washington Post was equally positive, opining that the two lead actors' performances were unforgettable. In particular, she thought Ledger was impressive in his portrayal of a reserved and emotionally affected Ennis. Hornaday also praised the costumes and sets, writing "The Wyoming vistas are flawlessly manicured, Ledger and Gyllenhaal perfectly costumed and coiffed; even Ennis and Alma's sad little apartment over a laundromat seems to have been designed to death."
Roger Ebert gave Brokeback Mountain a rating of four out of four stars in his review. Ebert was impressed with the level of attention to the characters, and thought that the film was as observant as the work by Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. Writing for The Sydney Morning Herald, Sandra Hall praised the screenplay and called Ledger and Gyllenhaal "finely tuned". Noting that it is a slow film, Hall thought the filmmakers had adapted Proulx's story without missing any nuances. USA Today's Mike Clark observed that Brokeback Mountain was directed and photographed with restraint, and praised its old-fashioned quality, and "unassuming but people-oriented" nature. The film also received a positive reaction from Christianity Today; the reviewer gave the film 3 out of 4 stars. In a mixed review, Ed Gonzalez of Slant magazine thought the film was too long, and the critic from Time magazine felt that the story became less intense towards the end. Conservative radio host Michael Medved described it as "extremely well done", but felt the film was pushing the gay agenda.
Several conservative political pundits, including commentators Bill O'Reilly, John Gibson, and Cal Thomas, shared Medved's view of the "agenda". Gibson made jokes about the film on his Fox News Radio program for months after its release. After the death of Ledger in 2008, Gibson was criticized for mocking the deceased actor, and later apologized. Conservative radio host Rush Limbaugh has referred to the film as "Bareback Mountain" and "Humpback Mountain". Don Imus referred to the film as "Fudgepack Mountain". Several conservative Christian groups, such as Concerned Women for America (CWA) and Focus on the Family, criticized the film for its subject matter. Following the success of Brokeback Mountain, Capote, and Transamerica at the Golden Globes Awards in 2006, Janice Crouse, a CWA member, cited these films as examples of how "the media elites are proving that their pet projects are more important than profit", and suggested they were not popular enough to warrant critical acclaim.
Film critic Gene Shalit, of The Today Show, described the character of Jack Twist as a "sexual predator" who "tracks Ennis down and coaxes him into sporadic trysts." The LGBT media group GLAAD said that Shalit's characterization of Twist was like calling Jack in Titanic a sexual predator due to his romantic pursuit of Rose. Shalit's openly gay son, Peter Shalit, wrote an open letter to GLAAD: "He [Gene] may have had an unpopular opinion of a movie that is important to the gay community, but he defamed no one, and he is not a homophobe." Gene Shalit later apologized for his review: "I did not intend to use a word that many in the gay community consider incendiary... I certainly had no intention of casting aspersions on anyone in the gay community or on the community itself. I regret any emotional hurt that may have resulted from my review of Brokeback Mountain."
Some commentators accused the filmmakers for hiding content about the film in advertising and in public events, such as press conferences and award ceremonies. New York Daily News writer Wayman Wong, Dave Cullen and Daniel Mendelsohn argued that the director, cast, and publicists avoided using the word gay to describe the story, and noted that the film's trailer did not show a kiss between the two men but showed a heterosexual love scene. The film's significance has been attributed to its portrayal of a same-sex relationship focused solely on the characters; it does not refer to the history of the LGBT social movements. It emphasizes the tragic love story aspect, and many critics have compared Ennis and Jack's drama to classic and modern romances such as Romeo and Juliet or Titanic, often using the term star-crossed lovers.
Proulx praised the film as "huge and powerful", adding, "I may be the first writer in America to have a piece of writing make its way to the screen whole and entire. [...] I was astonished that the characters of Jack and Ennis came surging into my mind again".
Critics' lists of 2005
Brokeback Mountain appeared on numerous American critics' lists as one of their favorite films of 2005.
- 1st – Stephen Holden, The New York Times
- 1st – Joe Morgenstern, The Wall Street Journal
- 1st – Rene Rodriguez, Miami Herald
- 1st – Ruthie Stein, San Francisco Chronicle
- 1st – Scott Tobias, The A.V. Club
- 2nd – Peter Travers, Rolling Stone
- 2nd – Lisa Schwarzbaum, Entertainment Weekly
- 2nd – Noel Murray, The A.V. Club
- 2nd – Desson Thompson, The Washington Post
- 2nd – Kevin Thomas, Los Angeles Times
- 2nd – Mike Clark and Claudia Puig, USA Today
- 3rd – Owen Gleiberman, Entertainment Weekly
- 3rd – Kenneth Turan, Los Angeles Times
- 3rd – Shawn Levy, Portland Oregonian
- 3rd – William Arnold, Seattle Post-Intelligencer
- 4th – David Ansen, Newsweek
- 4th – Keith Phipps, The A.V. Club
- 4th – Michael Atkinson, Village Voice
- 5th – Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun-Times
- 5th – Mike Russell, Portland Oregonian
- 5th – Michael Wilmington, Chicago Tribune
- 6th – Alison Benedikt, Chicago Tribune
- 6th – Ella Taylor, L.A. Weekly
- 7th – Nathan Rabin, The A.V. Club
- 7th – Mick LaSalle, San Francisco Chronicle
- 7th – Richard Roeper, Ebert & Roeper
- 8th – Mick LaSalle, San Francisco Chronicle
- Top 9 (listed alphabetically) - New York Film Critics Online
- 10th – Michael Phillips, Chicago Tribune
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically) – Manohla Dargis, The New York Times
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically) – Steven Rea, The Philadelphia Inquirer
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically) – Peter Rainer, The Christian Science Monitor
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically) – Carina Chocano, Los Angeles Times
The film was picked as one of the 400 nominated films for the American Film Institute list AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition). Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, best-of list. In a 2016 international poll conducted by BBC, Brokeback Mountain was ranked the 40th greatest film since 2000. In 2019, The Guardian ranked the film 66th in its 100 best films of the 21st century list.
On January 6, 2006, Utah Jazz owner Larry H. Miller removed the film from theaters at the Jordan Commons entertainment complex in Sandy, Utah. Miller said the film's content had no resemblance of a traditional family, which he believed is "dangerous". Focus Features threatened legal action and announced it would no longer do business with him.
On March 23, 2006, Randy Quaid, who portrayed Joe Aguirre in the film, filed a lawsuit against Focus Features for misrepresenting Brokeback Mountain as "a low-budget, art house film with no prospect of making any money", in order to secure his role for a cheaper rate. On May 4, Quaid's publicist said he dropped the lawsuit as the company agreed to pay him a settlement; the company denies this, however.
Brokeback Mountain garnered awards and nominations in a variety of categories, including for its directing, screenplay, acting, original score, and cinematography. At the 78th Academy Awards, Brokeback Mountain was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture and won three awards for Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Original Score. The film garnered seven nominations at the 63rd Golden Globe Awards, winning four for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director, Best Song, and Best Screenplay. At the 59th British Academy Film Awards, Brokeback Mountain was nominated for nine awards, winning in the categories of Best Film, Best Direction, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Supporting Actor for Jake Gyllenhaal.
After Brokeback Mountain lost the Academy Award for Best Picture to Crash, some critics accused the Academy of homophobia and for making a non-groundbreaking choice. Commentators including Kenneth Turan and Nikki Finke derided the Academy's decision, but Roger Ebert defended the decision to award Crash Best Picture, arguing that the better film won. Proulx wrote an essay expressing disappointment in the film not winning Best Picture. She also opined that Philip Seymour Hoffman's performance in Capote required less effort than that required of the actors in Brokeback Mountain. Following the loss, more than 800 supporters raised up to $26,000 to place an advertisement in the Daily Variety. The advert thanked the filmmakers "for transforming countless lives through the most honored film of the year."
The film is one of several highly acclaimed LGBT-related films of 2005 to be nominated for critical awards; others include Breakfast on Pluto, Capote, Rent, and Transamerica. It was voted the top film involving homosexual relationships by readers at TheBacklot.com. In 2010, the Independent Film & Television Alliance selected the film as one of the 30 Most Significant Independent Films of the last 30 years.
In 2015, The Hollywood Reporter polled Academy members on controversial past decisions, in which Brokeback Mountain won the revote for Best Picture.
Discussion on characters' sexuality
Critics and the cast and crew disagreed as to whether the film's two protagonists were homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual, or should be free of any sexual orientation classification. The film was frequently referred to in the media as the "gay cowboy movie", but a number of reviewers noted that both Jack and Ennis were bisexual. Sex researcher Fritz Klein said that the film was "a nice film with two main characters who were bisexual" and suggested that the character of Jack is more "toward the gay side" of the spectrum and Ennis is "a bit more toward the straight side".
Gyllenhaal said in 2006 that Ennis and Jack were straight men who "develop this love, this bond," saying in a Details interview: "I approached the story believing that these are actually two straight guys who fall in love." However, in 2015, he told The Hollywood Reporter that this was a "gay love story," and that his character was the more "overtly gay" of the two. Ledger told Time magazine in 2005: "I don't think Ennis could be labeled as gay. Without Jack Twist, I don't know that he ever would have come out. I think the whole point was that it was two souls that fell in love with each other."
Others said they felt the characters' sexuality was meant to be ambiguous. Clarence Patton and Christopher Murray of New York's Gay City News wrote that Ennis and Jack's experiences were metaphors for "many men who do not identify as gay or even queer, but who nevertheless have sex with other men". Entertainment Weekly wrote that "everyone called it 'The Gay Cowboy Movie' until they saw it. In the end, Ang Lee's 2005 love story wasn't gay or straight, just human." Tom Ciorciari of EFilmCritic.com wrote: "We later see Jack eagerly engage Lureen sexually, with no explanation as to whether he is bisexual, so in need of physical intimacy that anyone, regardless of gender, will do, or merely very adept at faking it."
LGBT non-fiction author Eric Marcus dismissed "talk of Ennis and Jack being anything but gay as box office-influenced political correctness intended to steer straight audiences to the film". Roger Ebert believed that both characters were gay, but doubted it themselves: "Jack is able to accept a little more willingly that he is inescapably gay." Producer James Schamus said, "I suppose movies can be Rorschach tests for all of us, but damn if these characters aren't gay to me." Brokeback Mountain author Annie Proulx said, "how different readers take the story is a reflection of their own personal values, attitudes, hang-ups."
When Ledger and Gyllenhaal were asked if they feared being cast in controversial roles, Ledger stated that he was not afraid of the role, but rather he was concerned that he would not be mature enough as an actor to do the story justice. Gyllenhaal has stated that he is proud of the film and his role, regardless of what the reactions would be. He thinks rumors of him being bisexual are flattering, stating: "I'm open to whatever people want to call me. I've never really been attracted to men sexually, but I don't think I would be afraid of it if it happened." Lee described himself as shy upon shooting the first sex scene and found it initially, technically difficult but praised Ledger and Gyllenhaal for their professionalism. Ledger's performance was described by Luke Davies as a difficult and empowering portrayal given the environment of the film: "In Brokeback Mountain the vulnerability, the potential for danger, is so great – a world so masculine it might destroy you for any aberration – that [Ledger's] real brilliance was to bring to the screen a character, Ennis Del Mar, so fundamentally shut down that he is like a bible of unrequited desires, stifled yearnings, lost potential."
Author Jim Kitses quoted Diana Ossana's acknowledgement of how the film "subverts the myth of the American West and its iconic heroes." He commented: "What drives the emotional attack of the film is the inadequacy of its characters to articulate and understand, let alone control, the experience that strikes them like a storm. American cowboys—of all people—have no business falling in love with each other. Practical and conservative types of a rough and ready manhood are by no means ready for man-love."
Legacy and impact
Brokeback Mountain was lauded as a landmark in LGBT cinema and credited for influencing several films and television shows featuring LGBT themes and characters. In Out at the Movies, Steven Paul Davies explains that as a result of the film's success, "most major film studios have been clamouring to get behind new, gay-themed projects... thanks to Brokeback, film financiers will continue to back scripts that don't simply rely on gay stereotypes...and that will certainly be progress." Davies cites Milk, Transamerica, and I Love You Phillip Morris as examples of such films. In 2018, Brokeback Mountain was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
The pair of shirts worn by Ledger's and Gyllenhaal's characters were sold on eBay on February 20, 2006, for US$101,100.51. The shirts were sold to benefit children's charity Variety. The buyer, Tom Gregory, film historian and collector, described the shirts as "the ruby slippers of our time," referring to an artifact from The Wizard of Oz film. In 2009, Gregory loaned the shirts to the Autry National Center in Los Angeles for its series, Out West, which explored the history of homosexual, bisexual and transgender people in the Old West. The series included a gallery tour, panel discussions, lectures and performances, with events held in four installments over the course of 12 months. According to the Autry, the series was the "first of its kind" for a western heritage museum.
A book, Beyond Brokeback: The Impact of a Film (2007) is a collection of personal stories of how people were influenced by the story and film, compiled from members of the Ultimate Brokeback Forum website. In an associated Out West series program, the Autry screened Brokeback Mountain in December 2010 to commemorate the film's fifth anniversary and held a staged reading of Beyond Brokeback by historian and Out West organizer Gregory Hinton. Beyond Brokeback has been presented as a staged reading at other venues, such as Roosevelt University in Chicago, on November 13, 2011, together with a panel discussion and screening of the film. An American opera, Brokeback Mountain, was composed by Charles Wuorinen with a libretto by Annie Proulx. Written in English, it premiered at the Teatro Real in Madrid on January 28, 2014. It was championed by impresario Gerard Mortier, who had commissioned it.
Several years after the film's release, Proulx said she regrets writing the story. She said that people have sent her too much fan fiction presenting alternative plots. Some authors, mostly men claiming to "understand men better than I do", often send their works. She said:
[The film] is the source of constant irritation in my private life. There are countless people out there who think the story is open range to explore their fantasies and to correct what they see as an unbearably disappointing story [...] They constantly send ghastly manuscripts and pornish rewrites of the story to me, expecting me to reply with praise and applause for "fixing" the story. They certainly don't get the message that if you can't fix it you've got to stand it. Most of these "fix-it" tales have the character Ennis finding a husky boyfriend and living happily ever after, or discovering the character Jack is not really dead after all, or having the two men's children meet and marry, etc., etc.
- Brokeback Mountain: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
- List of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender-related films by storyline
- List of films considered the best
- Mixed-orientation marriage, sometimes referred to as a "brokeback" marriage
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain (15)". British Board of Film Classification. September 26, 2005. Archived from the original on May 10, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- ^ a b "Brokeback Mountain (2005) - Box Office Mojo". Archived from the original on June 3, 2011.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain Cast and Crew". TV Guide. Archived from the original on October 21, 2020. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Strachan, Maxwell (December 11, 2015). "'Brokeback Mountain,' 10 Years On". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- ^ "The Missouri Review » An Interview with Annie Proulx". March 1, 1999. Archived from the original on October 23, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ "Here Are the A-listers Who Turned Down 'Brokeback Mountain'". July 19, 2018. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
- ^ Nolfi, Joey (December 9, 2021). "Josh Hartnett wishes he and Joaquin Phoenix went through with 'Brokeback Mountain'". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 9, 2021. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
- ^ Nashawaty, Chris (August 6, 2007). "The Strong Violent Type". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- ^ a b Smith, Adam (January 2006). "The Searchers". Empire (Magazine Interview with Ang Lee) (199): 120–125.
- ^ "'Brokeback Mountain' Writer Reveals Actors Who Almost Starred". The Hollywood Reporter. April 4, 2018. Archived from the original on December 25, 2021. Retrieved December 25, 2021.
- ^ a b c d e f "Brokeback Mountain: 10 Years On an Oral History". www.out.com. July 28, 2015. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ a b Bowen, Peter (Autumn 2005). "Ride the High Country". Filmmaker. 14 (1): 34–39.
- ^ "Interview: James Schamus". Uncut. January 19, 2006. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- ^ a b c d e Papamichael, Stella (December 20, 2005). "BBC - Movies - interview - Ang Lee". www.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- ^ Roman, Julian (December 7, 2005). "Ang Lee Talks 'Brokeback Mountain'". MovieWeb. Archived from the original on May 3, 2020. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- ^ Goldstein, Greg (September 6, 2007). "Pohlad's River Road prefers path less taken | Hollywood Reporter". www.hollywoodreporter.com. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
- ^ a b c d Galloway, Stephen (November 25, 2015). "10 Years After 'Brokeback,' Jake Gyllenhaal Remembers Heath Ledger: "Way Beyond His Years as a Human" | Hollywood Reporter". www.hollywoodreporter.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- ^ a b Rich, Ruby B (Spring 2007). "Brokering Brokeback : Jokes, Backlashes, and Other Anxieties". Film Quarterly. 60 (3): 44–48. doi:10.1525/fq.2007.60.3.44. JSTOR 101525/fq.2007.60.3.44.
- ^ Nasson, Tim (April 7, 2006). "Ang Lee Brokeback Mountain Interview, by Tim Nasson". Wild About Movies. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- ^ a b c d "Heath Ledger - Interview : Brokeback Mountain : Movies : Entertainment : Web Wombat". m.webwombat.com.au. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- ^ a b c Feinstein, Howard (January 6, 2006). "Interview: Howard Feinstein meets Heath Ledger". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 14, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
- ^ "The Lie Anne Hathaway Told To Get Hired For Brokeback Mountain". www.cinemablend.com. July 28, 2015. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ^ Logo Movie Special: "Brokeback Mountain" 2005, TV Movie, Logo, (Interviews with Cast and Crew) December 5
- ^ Dinoff, Dustin (February 20, 2006). "Alberta back on Oscar Mountain". Playback. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2007.
- ^ "Alberta flaunts cowboy image in Manhattan". CBC News. February 24, 2006. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ^ "REEL ADVENTURES: Saddles and Side Trips". Alberta SouthWest Regional Alliance. February 18, 2016. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ^ Waxman, Sharon (March 29, 2006). "Lawsuit Over 'Brokeback Mountain' Reveals Unease Over Pay for 'Arthouse' Films". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 21, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ a b c d Kenny, Glenn (Spring 2010). "Crossing Borders - Ang Lee". Directors Guild of America. Archived from the original on July 9, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- ^ "'Brokeback Mountain' No Love Story for Its Animal Actors". U. S. Newswire. March 1, 2006. Archived from the original on May 9, 2006. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
- ^ a b "From Heartbreak to Triumph on Brokeback Mountain". Avid. 2005. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
- ^ "Jake and Heath: Their love will go on". Defamer.com. Archived from the original on June 22, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
- ^ Brokeback Mountain [Original Motion Picture Soundtrack] - Gustavo Santaolalla | Songs, Reviews, Credits | AllMusic, AllMusic, archived from the original on September 8, 2017, retrieved September 30, 2020
- ^ Tippett, Krista (August 25, 2016). "Gustavo Santaolalla — How Movie Music Moves Us". The On Being Project. Archived from the original on April 23, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Martin, Michael (October 8, 2009). "Oscar-Winning Musician Gustavo Santaolalla Talks Artistry". NPR.org. NPR. Archived from the original on October 25, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Belanger, Joseph (February 8, 2014). "The black sheep interview: Gustavo Santaolalla (Brokeback Mountain)". Black Sheep Reviews. Archived from the original on May 28, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Niles, Jon (October 17, 2014). "Exclusive interview: 'The Book Of Life' Composer Gustavo Santaolalla Talks Scoring New Animated Movie, Upcoming Projects & Making Music For Film, TV And Video Games". Music Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Kirschling, Gregory (October 7, 2005). "Brokeback Mountain's no-bull marketing scheme". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 30, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ a b c d "Brokeback Mountain". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 20, 2020. Retrieved May 11, 2006.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain | British Board of Film Classification". www.bbfc.co.uk. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain". Time Out London. Archived from the original on July 7, 2019. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- ^ "Release dates for Brokeback Mountain". Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on March 7, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
- ^ "Hong Kong Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ "The Numbers - Box Office Performance History for Focus Features". The Numbers. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ "Anecdotes, potins, actus, voire secrets inavouables autour de "Le Secret de Brokeback Mountain" et de son tournage !". AlloCiné (in French). Archived from the original on February 18, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- ^ "I segreti di Brokeback Mountain: il finale del film e il suo significato". MondoFox (in Italian). June 30, 2018. Archived from the original on September 30, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- ^ "Les secrets de tournage du film Le Secret de Brokeback Mountain" (in French). Archived from the original on February 18, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019 – via www.allocine.fr.
- ^ "On y revient toujours - Critique - SOUVENIRS DE BROKEBACK MOUNTAIN (2005)". www.cinoche.com. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- ^ "Brokeback mountain en terreno vedado". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- ^ ""Secreto en la Montaña": 10 polémicos datos de la cinta protagonizada por Heath Ledger". De10 (in Spanish). April 4, 2019. Archived from the original on April 5, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- ^ "Kritika: Túl a barátságon - Moziplussz.hu". moziplussz.hu (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- ^ "Interview with Ang Lee". CNN. October 26, 2007. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- ^ World Entertainment News Network (January 27, 2006). "Brokeback Mountain banned in China". WTOP News. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ ""Brokeback" not coming to mainland". Xinhuanet.com, Sources: China Radio International & Sznews.com. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ Lee, Min. "'Brokeback' becomes lingo in Chinese". Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- ^ "'Brokeback Mountain' Gets 4 Golden Globes, but will it make it to Lebanon?". Helem. January 17, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ Abdullah, Afkar (February 9, 2006). "UAE bans Brokeback Mountain". Khaleej Times. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- ^ "The Dubai desert dream: it's not all fireworks and Kylie By John Arlidge". The Daily Telegraph. London. November 21, 2008. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ "L'Arcigay: "La Rai ha censurato il film Brokeback Mountain"". Corriere della Sera. Italy. December 9, 2008. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
- ^ ""Brokeback Mountain" torna su Rai2 Ma stavolta senza censurare i baci..." la Repubblica. Italy. March 10, 2009. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
- ^ Snider, Mike (April 3, 2006). "Pick your movie format: Download or DVD". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 27, 2006. Retrieved May 26, 2006.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain (DVD)". Walmart.com. Archived from the original on October 2, 2019.
- ^ "The Numbers - DVD Sales Chart for Week Ending April 9, 2006". www.the-numbers.com. Archived from the original on March 1, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain". Amazon. Archived from the original on October 2, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2007. Reference content retrieved on July 23, 2007, no longer supports Amazon.com sales ranking statement.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain 2005". Amazon. Archived from the original on October 2, 2019. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- ^ "Le Secret de Brokeback Mountain [Édition Simple]". Archived from the original on October 2, 2019.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain: 2 Disc Collector's Edition". CINEMABLEND. May 27, 2016. Archived from the original on October 2, 2019.
- ^ "Universal announces first new HD DVD titles in 2007". Tom's Hardware. January 23, 2007. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain [Blu-ray] (2005)". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain [Blu-ray]". Amazon UK. August 13, 2007. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ Brokeback Mountain Blu-ray Release Date March 10, 2009, archived from the original on November 4, 2019, retrieved September 30, 2020
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain's steady rise". BBC News. March 6, 2006. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
- ^ "Brokeback Mountain Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on May 11, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
- ^ "Critic Reviews for Brokeback Mountain - Metacritic". Metacritic. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- ^ Ansen, David (December 18, 2005). "The Heart Is A Lonely Hunter". Newsweek. Archived from the original on July 29, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Bradshaw, Peter (January 8, 2006). "Brokeback Mountain". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Hornaday, Ann (December 16, 2005). "Lost in Love's Rocky Terrain". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on November 29, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Ebert, Roger. "Brokeback Mountain movie review (2005) | Roger Ebert". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on August 2, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Hall, Sandra (January 25, 2006). "Brokeback Mountain". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on August 2, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Clark, Mike (December 8, 2005). "USATODAY.com - 'Brokeback' opens new vistas". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 27, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Cockrel, Lisa Ann. "Reviews: Brokeback Mountain". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- ^ Ed, Gonzalez (November 15, 2005). "Brokeback Mountain". Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on October 13, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Schickel, Richard (November 20, 2005). "Movies: A Tender Cowpoke Love Story". Time. Archived from the original on March 6, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Ventura, Elbert (February 13, 2006). "What Hollywood Agenda?". The American Prospect. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Shea, Danny (January 23, 2008). "Fox Host John Gibson Mocks Heath Ledger's Death". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009.
- ^ Limbaugh, Rush (2006). "Feminization Has Taken Democratic Party Backward". Archived from the original on October 24, 2006. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
- ^ Imus, Don (2007). "Imus Backtracks from Slur—Kind of". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- ^ "CWA's Crouse says, "Golden Globes Goes Political"". Concerned Women for America. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ a b "Gene Shalit Trashes "Brokeback Mountain" with Antigay Review". The Advocate. January 7, 2006. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- ^ a b Grossberg, Josh (January 12, 2006). "Shalit Sorry for "Brokeback" Bash". E!. Archived from the original on May 29, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- ^ "Peter Shalit writes to GLAAD about his dad". Archived from the original on January 11, 2006. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- ^ Cullen, Dave (January 17, 2006). "When does that hidden kiss become the shameful kiss?". Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- ^ Mendelsohn, Daniel (February 23, 2006). "An Affair to Remember". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ Ehrenstein, David (February 1, 2006). "'Brokeback's' tasteful appeal". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 28, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
- ^ Lundegaard, Erik. "Love makes 'Brokeback' Oscar favorite". Today.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
- ^ Harris, Dan. "Christian conservatives serve up 'Brokeback' backlash". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 23, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
- ^ Koresky, Michael. "Don't fence me in: Ang Lee's 'Brokeback Mountain'". IndieWire. Archived from the original on April 23, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
- ^ "About Brokeback Mountain". Annie Proulx. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ "Metacritic: 2005 Film Critic Top Ten Lists". Metacritic. December 14, 2007. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- ^ "Ebert and Roeper Top Ten Lists (2000-2005))". www.innermind.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2018. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) Ballot" (PDF). afi.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- ^ a b Geier, Thom; Jensen, Jeff; Jordan, Tina; Lyons, Margaret; Markovitz, Adam; Nashawaty, Chris; Pastorek, Whitney; Rice, Lynette; Rottenberg, Josh; Schwartz, Missy; Slezak, Michael; Snierson, Dan; Stack, Tim; Stroup, Kate; Tucker, Ken; Vary, Adam B.; Vozick-Levinson, Simon; Ward, Kate (December 11, 2009). "The 100 Greatest Movies, TV Shows, Albums, Books, Characters, Scenes, Episodes, Songs, Dresses, Music Videos, and Trends that Entertained Us Over the Past 10 Years". Entertainment Weekly. (1079/1080): 74–84.
- ^ "The 21st century's 100 greatest films". BBC. August 23, 2016. Archived from the original on January 31, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- ^ "The 100 best films of the 21st century". The Guardian. September 13, 2019. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
- ^ Gray, Brandon (January 9, 2006). "Utah Theater Snub Can't Bridle 'Brokeback Mountain'". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ a b "Utah Theater Balks at 'Brokeback Mountain'". KUTV. January 10, 2006. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ "Brokeback actor 'suing for $10m'". BBC. 2006. Archived from the original on November 27, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
- ^ "Randy Quaid drops 'Brokeback' lawsuit". Today.com. Associated Press. 2006. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2006.
- ^ "The 78th Academy Awards | 2006". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on November 2, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ "Winners & Nominees 2005". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ "Film in 2006 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Bleiler, David (March 10, 2006). "Did Homophobia Steal 'Brokeback' Oscar?". Philly. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Turan, Kenneth (March 5, 2006). "Breaking no ground". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2006. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Finke, Nikki (March 6, 2006). "What Did I Tell You?". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on November 21, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Staff (March 6, 2006). "How did 'Brokeback Mountain' Lose? – Was It Prejudice, the Rural Setting or Was 'Crash' Simply the Better Film?". Associated Press (via Today). Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- ^ Proulx, Annie (March 11, 2006). "Annie Proulx: Blood on the red carpet". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016 – via www.theguardian.com.
- ^ "Oscars: 'Brokeback' Heartbreak". Newsweek. March 20, 2006. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- ^ Elliott, Stuart (March 13, 2006). "Upset 'Brokeback' fans advertise their feelings". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
- ^ "'Brokeback' fans raise $18K for Variety ad | Advocate.com". www.advocate.com. March 9, 2006. Archived from the original on May 10, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- ^ "The Backlot - Corner of Hollywood and Gay - NewNowNext". LOGO News. Archived from the original on September 9, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- ^ "IFTA Picks 30 Most Significant Indie Films". The Wrap. September 8, 2010. Archived from the original on February 6, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- ^ "Recount! Oscar Voters Today Would Make 'Brokeback Mountain' Best Picture Over 'Crash'". The Hollywood Reporter. February 18, 2015. Archived from the original on January 22, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (February 19, 2015). "Crash burned: Academy members reassess past Oscar decisions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on February 28, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ^ Blank, Ed (January 25, 2007). "Ed Blank's DVD reviews". TribLIVE.com (Brokeback Mountain). Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ Williams, Ken (May 31, 2006). "Brokeback Mountain". The Daily Page. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ Cheshire, Godfrey (January 4, 2006). "Somewhere over the rainbow". The Independent Weekly. Archived from the original on January 10, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ a b c Lee, Ryan (January 13, 2006). "Probing the 'Brokeback Syndrome'". Southern Voice (Forum that has captured now dead linked article). Archived from the original on January 18, 2006. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
- ^ Galloway, Stephen (November 25, 2015). "Ten Years After Brokeback, Jake Gyllenhaal Remembers Heath Ledger". Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 26, 2022.
- ^ Luscombe, Belinda (November 20, 2005). "Heath Turns It Around". Time. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Patton, Clarence. "Brokeback on the Down Low". gaycitynews.nyc. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ Ciorciari, Tom (April 2, 2006). "Brokeback Mountain". EFilmCritic. Archived from the original on August 16, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ Ebert, Roger (December 16, 2005). "Brokeback Mountain review". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- ^ Testa, Matthew (December 7, 2005). "Exclusive PJH Interview: At close range with Annie Proulx". Planet Jackson Hole. Archived from the original on July 16, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ Testa, Matthew (December 29, 2005). "Close Range". Salt Lake City Weekly. Archived from the original on June 29, 2006. Retrieved March 16, 2006.
- ^ Alexis, Jonas E. (December 1, 2011). Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: Surprising Differences, Conflicting Visions, and Worldview Implications--from the Early Church to Our Modern Time. WestBow Press. ISBN 9781449734862. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- ^ Setoodeh, Ramin (June 28, 2015). "'Brokeback Mountain's' 10th Anniversary: Ang Lee and James Schamus Look Back". Variety. Archived from the original on March 29, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- ^ Davis, Luke (March 5, 2008). "Heath Ledger, 1979–2008". The Monthly. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
- ^ a b Kitses, Jim (March 2007). "All that Brokeback Allows". Film Quarterly. 60 (3): 22–27. doi:10.1525/fq.2007.60.3.22. JSTOR 10.1525/fq.2007.60.3.22.
- ^ Teeman, Tim (May 29, 2018). "How Landmark LGBT Movie 'Brokeback Mountain' Became an Opera". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
- ^ Murphy, Shaunna. "10 Years After 'Brokeback Mountain,' What Has Changed For LGBT Rights?". MTV News. Archived from the original on September 14, 2019. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
- ^ Davies, Steven Paul (2008). Out at the Movies. Kamera Books. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-1-84243-291-4.
- ^ "Library of Congress National Film Registry Turns 30". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
- ^ "Brokeback shirts sell for more than $100K". The Advocate. February 23, 2006. Archived from the original on May 10, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ^ "Brokeback shirts: yours for $100,000". The Guardian. February 23, 2006. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ^ Ng, David (December 15, 2009). "'Out West' at the Autry examines the history of homosexuals and transgender people in the Old West". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 19, 2011. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- ^ "Bozeman Public Library presents Gregory Hinton's "Beyond Brokeback: A Staged Reading with Music" Oct. 1". Wyoming Arts Council. September 28, 2011. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- ^ Andrew Clements, "Brokeback Mountain—Review" Archived June 18, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian (London), January 29, 2014
- ^ Anthony Tommasini, "Operatic Cowboys in Love, Onstage" Archived May 26, 2017, at the Wayback Machine (Review), The New York Times, January 29, 2014
- ^ a b Reynolds, Susan Salter (October 18, 2008). "Writer's no longer at home on range". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
"I wish I'd never written it," Proulx says[...]
- ^ a b Hughes, Robert J. (September 6, 2008). "Return to the Range". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- Proulx, Annie (1997, 1999, 2006). Close Range: Wyoming Stories.
- Proulx, Annie; McMurtry, Larry; Ossana, Diana (2005, 2006). Brokeback Mountain: Story to Screenplay. London, New York, Toronto and Sydney: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-00-723430-1.
- Packard, Chris (2006) Queer Cowboys: And Other Erotic Male Friendships in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-7597-3.
- Cante, Richard C. (March 2008). "Introduction"; "Chapter 3". Gay Men and the Forms of Contemporary US Culture. London: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-7230-1.
- Rich, B. Ruby (2013). "Ang Lee's Lonesome Cowboys". New Queer Cinema: The Director's Cut. London: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-5428-4.