English Standard Version

English translation of the Bible

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English Standard Version
ESV Pew Bible (Hardcover, Black), Oct 2018.png
ESV Pew Bible (Hardcover, Black)
AbbreviationESV
Complete Bible
published
2001
Derived fromRevised Standard Version (2nd ed., 1971)
Textual basis
Translation typeFormal equivalence
Reading level8.0[3]
Version revision2007, 2011, 2016
PublisherCrossway
CopyrightThe Holy Bible, English Standard Version® (ESV®)

Copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

All rights reserved.
Websitewww.esv.org
In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.[4]
"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.[4]

The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Bible. The ESV was published in 2001 by Crossway, having been "created by a team of more than 100 leading evangelical scholars and pastors."[5][6][7][8] The ESV relies on recently published critical editions of the original Hebrew and Greek texts.[1][2] Crossway claims that the ESV continues a legacy of precision and faithfulness in English translation of the original text, begun by William Tyndale's New Testament, and historically followed by "the King James Version of 1611 (KJV), the English Revised Version of 1885 (RV), the American Standard Version of 1901 (ASV), and the Revised Standard Version of 1952 and 1971 (RSV)."[9] Crossway describes the ESV as a translation that "emphasizes 'word-for-word' accuracy, literary excellence, and depth of meaning."[5] Crossway also describes the ESV as a translation that adheres to an "essentially literal" translation philosophy, taking into account "differences in grammar, syntax, and idiom between current literary English and the original languages."[9]

Since publication, the ESV has been endorsed by numerous evangelical pastors and theologians. These include notable individuals such as John Piper, R. C. Sproul, and Kevin DeYoung.[10] As of July 2015, over 100 million printed copies of the translation had been distributed. Since 2021, this figure has increased to 250 million.[11]

History

Pre-publication

During the early 1990s, Crossway president Lane T. Dennis engaged in discussions with various Christian scholars and pastors regarding the need for a new literal translation of the Bible.[12] In 1997,[13] Dennis contacted the National Council of Churches (NCC) and proceeded to enter negotiations, alongside Trinity Evangelical Divinity School professor Wayne Grudem, for obtaining rights to use the 1971 text edition of the Revised Standard Version as the starting point for a new translation.[14] In September 1998, an agreement was reached with the NCC for Crossway to use and modify the 1971 RSV text, thereby enabling the creation of a new translation.[14] Crossway moved forward from this position by forming a translation committee and initiating work on the ESV. Crossway officially published the ESV in 2001.[12]

In 1999, World reported of "feminists" noticing links between Crossway and the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood (CBMW).[14] CBMW had been involved in criticizing plans that were made by Zondervan's Committee on Bible Translation[a] to include gender-neutral language in the New International Version.[16] Grudem, who was president of CBMW at the time, responded by stating, "This [the ESV translation] is not a CBMW project."[14]

Translation Oversight Committee

Chaired by Dennis and aided by over fifty biblical experts working as review scholars,[6][8] the original ESV translation committee—consisting of fourteen members—features the following notable individuals:

  • Dr. Wayne A. Grudem (Research Professor, Theology and Biblical Studies, Phoenix Seminary)
  • Dr. R. Kent Hughes (Senior Pastor Emeritus, College Church in Wheaton)
  • Dr. J. I. Packer (Board of Governors Professor of Theology, Regent College, Vancouver, Canada)
  • Dr. Vern Sheridan Poythress (Professor of New Testament Interpretation, Westminster Theological Seminary; Editor, Westminster Theological Journal)
  • Dr. Gordon Wenham (Old Testament Tutor at Trinity College, Bristol; Emeritus Professor of Old Testament, University of Gloucestershire)[7]

Post-publication

In 2008, Crossway published the ESV Study Bible, which would go on to sell over 1 million copies.[17] In 2009, the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association named the ESV Study Bible as Christian Book of the Year. This was the first time in the award's 30-year history to be given to a study Bible.[18]

At the 2008 annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society, Today's New International Version (TNIV) translator Mark L. Strauss presented a paper titled "Why the English Standard Version should not become the Standard English Version: How to make a good translation much better." In the paper, Strauss criticizes the ESV for using dated language among other perceived issues, such as using gender-neutral language inconsistently in translation.[19] Regarding scholarly debate surrounding translation philosophy, ESV translator William D. Mounce responded to Strauss's criticism:

While the content of the paper was helpful, I am afraid that it only increased the gap between the two "sides" of the [translation philosophy] debate. ... He kept saying that the ESV has "missed" or "not considered" certain translational issues. While I am sure they were not intentional, these are emotionally charged words that do not help in the debate. They are in essence ad hominem arguments focusing on our competence (or perceived lack thereof) and not on the facts. He was not in the translation meetings and does not know if we in fact did miss or did not consider these issues. ... The solution to this debate is to recognize that there are different translation philosophies, different goals and means by which to reach those goals, and the goal of the translator is to be consistent in achieving those goals. In all but one of his examples, our translation was the one required by our translation philosophy.[20]

Strauss invited Mounce to publicly engage in the translation philosophy debate through participation at the following annual meeting. In 2009, Mounce presented his response paper, titled "Can the ESV and TNIV Co-Exist in the Same Universe?". In the paper, Mounce describes various points regarding his view of the need for both formal and functional translations.[21]

In October 2019, University of Oklahoma Sociology Associate Professor Samuel L. Perry published a journal article titled "The Bible as a Product of Cultural Power: The Case of Gender Ideology in the English Standard Version." In the paper, Perry attempts to demonstrate "how a more critical approach toward 'the Bible' can provide richer, more sophisticated sociological analyses of power and cultural reproduction within Christian traditions." Perry argues that Crossway's ESV translation committee made "intentional, systematic changes" into the ESV for the purpose of being able to "publish and mass-market a text more amenable to conservative, complementarian interpretations." Perry further argues that the ESV translation committee "have engaged in more covert means of cultural reproduction, not only disseminating their interpretation of the biblical text, but manipulating the text itself."[22] The ESV Study Bible often details in its study notes why a complementarian interpretation of the original text may have been rendered in translation.[23][b]

In 2020, the Ireland-based Association of Catholic Priests criticized the ESV for its position on the use of gender-neutral language, perceiving the use of terms such as "mankind" and "brothers" to be "not just out of sync with modern usage [but are] culturally regarded as diminishing and disrespectful of women."[24]

In June 2021, Samuel L. Perry published a journal article titled "Whitewashing Evangelical Scripture: The Case of Slavery and Antisemitism in the English Standard Version." In the paper, Perry attempts to demonstrate how "the ESV editors, while modifying certain RSV renderings to establish transitivity for their text among complementarian/biblicist Christians, sought to establish intransitivity between the text and more pejorative social interpretations by progressively re-translating lexically ambiguous terms and introducing footnotes to obviate the Bible’s ostensible promotion of slavery and antisemitism."[25] In July 2021, Lexham Press academic editor Mark Ward published an article responding to Perry's critique:

The first step in interpretation should be transitivity. You should try to fit what you read in the Bible in with your existing tradition. That’s simple hermeneutical humility—as long as it’s paired with a sincere desire to hold one’s tradition up to the light of Scripture. The Reformation was about recovering our ability to do just this, to stand within a tradition and yet make our consciences captive to the word of God. Here we stand. ... I can be grateful to Perry for some sharp observations, even some warning shots, while still insisting that any view that muzzles God, that severs the link between his intentions and his words, is rebellion. That’s what I see when I look back at the anthropologists who critique my Bible reading. It isn’t only religious people who can turn the Bible into something it wasn’t intended to be. Anthropologists can make their own power plays with God’s words. To offer "establishing transitivity with existing views" as a wholly sufficient view of evangelical Bible use is to take a small truth and make it the whole truth. It is to say to God, "We can’t hear you because other people are talking."[26]

Textual characteristics

Relationship to the Revised Standard Version

The ESV is derived from the 1971 text edition of the Revised Standard Version (RSV).[12][22][27] ESV translation committee member Wayne Grudem claims that approximately eight percent (or about 60,000 words) of the 1971 RSV text being used for the ESV was revised as of first publication in 2001. Grudem states that the committee removed "every trace of liberal influence that had caused such criticism from evangelicals when the RSV was first published in 1952."[c] Although, Grudem also states that much of the 1971 RSV text left unchanged by the committee "is simply 'the best of the best' of the KJV tradition."[28]

Literary style

Theologian Tim Challies has praised the ESV for its commitment to literary excellence:

... the book that has most shaped my writing is the Bible—the ESV. Not only is this the book I’ve read most over the years, but it’s also the book I’ve studied the closest, and memorized most substantially. And then, of all the books I’ve read, it’s one of the finest in its literary quality. ... One thing I’ve always loved about the ESV is its superior use of the English language. Any translation involves a trade-off between precision and readability so that the most-literal translations also tend to be the least-readable. Though the ESV is a precise Bible, its translators chose to place a premium on literary excellence. ... They succeeded well, and the Bible they translated is beautiful to read—far more than any of its contemporaries.[29]

Crossway claims that the ESV "retains theological terminology—words such as grace, faith, justification, sanctification, redemption, regeneration, reconciliation, propitiation—because of their central importance for Christian doctrine and also because the underlying Greek words were already becoming key words and technical terms among Christians in New Testament times." Crossway also claims that the ESV lets the distinct writing styles of the various biblical writers come through the translated text.[9]

Gender-neutral language

The ESV translation committee states that "the goal of the ESV is to render literally what is in the original." The committee expands on this position in claiming that, although the ESV avoids using gender-neutral language (for the purpose of preserving contextual meaning found in the original text), the translation does utilize gender-neutral language in specific cases. The committee further states that their objective was "transparency to the original text, allowing the reader to understand the original on its own terms rather than in the terms of our present-day Western culture."[9]

Revisions and other editions

2007 text edition

Crossway published the first revision of the ESV text in 2007 as "ESV Text Edition: 2007." The revision makes minor changes to the 2001 text.[30]

2011 text edition

Crossway published the second revision of the ESV text in April 2011 as "ESV Text Edition: 2011." The revision changes fewer than 500 words in total throughout 275 verses from the 2007 text. The changes were made in each case to "correct grammar, improve consistency, or increase precision in meaning."[31] A notable revision was made in Isaiah 53:5, changing "wounded for our transgressions" to "pierced for our transgressions" in the revised text.[32]

2016 text edition

Crossway published the third revision of the ESV text in August 2016 as the "ESV Permanent Text Edition (2016)." The revision changes 52 words in total throughout 29 verses from the 2011 text.[33] A notable revision was made in Genesis 3:16 to use a complementarian interpretation of the original text: switching "shall be toward" with "shall be contrary to" in the revised text.[34] The previous rendering can be found in the footnotes[35] (excluding any editions that specifically do not have footnotes, such as the ESV Reader's Bible[36]). The ESV Study Bible details in its study notes the revised interpretation in relation to a parallel understanding of 3:16 with both 4:7 (which shares the Hebrew word teshuqah; this verse having also been updated in the 2016 text) and Ephesians 5:21–32.[23]

Coinciding with the release of the revision, Crossway announced that "the text of the ESV Bible will remain unchanged in all future editions printed and published by Crossway."[33] However, in a statement from Lane T. Dennis the following month, the new policy was abandoned "to allow for ongoing periodic updating of the text to reflect the realities of biblical scholarship such as textual discoveries or changes in English over time."[12][37] In the statement, Dennis responded to public discourse surrounding the policy: "We have become convinced that this decision was a mistake. We apologize for this and for any concern this has caused for readers of the ESV."[38][39] The revision was subsequently republished as "ESV Text Edition: 2016."

Catholic edition

In 2018, the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India published the English Standard Version Catholic Edition (ESV-CE), which includes the deuterocanonical books.[40] With permission from Crossway, the ESV text in this edition was modified by a team of Catholic scholars to adhere to Catholic teaching.[41][42][43] In 2019, the Augustine Institute published the ESV-CE in North America as The Augustine Bible.[44][41] In April 2020, the Catholic Church in India started using a new English lectionary which uses the ESV-CE as its Bible text (excluding the Book of Psalms, which uses the Grail Psalms translation instead).[45] In July 2020, the Bishops' Conference of Scotland approved preparation of a new lectionary that is based on the ESV-CE. The Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales also approved their own lectionary to be based on the ESV-CE.[46]

Anglican edition

In 2019, Anglican Liturgy Press published the ESV: Anglican Edition.[47] This edition includes the Apocrypha, placed in the back of the Bible.[48]

Gideons edition

In 2013, Gideons International permanently transitioned from the New King James Version to the ESV as their translation of choice for free of charge distribution Bibles. In addition to being granted licensing for the ESV text (for the purpose of distributing), Crossway gave Gideons International permission to modify the text to use alternative readings based on the Textus Receptus. The Gideons edition uses over 50 alternative readings.[49]

Oxford Apocrypha edition

In January 2009, Oxford University Press published the English Standard Version Bible with Apocrypha.[50] This edition includes an English translation of the Apocrypha, placed in the back of the Bible, intended for "denominations that use those books in liturgical readings and for students who need them for historical purposes."[50]

Use

Study Bibles

The ESV has been used as the Bible text for a number of study Bible editions, including:

Other use

In August 2006,[61] the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod released the Lutheran Service Book (LSB),[62] which uses the ESV as its primary Bible text. With permission from Crossway, the LSB occasionally uses an alternative reading of the ESV in accordance with the ESV's translation principles.[62]

Notes

  1. ^ CBT; described by Zondervan as "a self-governing body of 15 evangelical Bible scholars."[15]
  2. ^ For example, the study notes detailing Genesis 3:16 (in the 2016 text edition; along with its relevance to 4:7), Romans 16:1 (also see note on 1 Tim. 3:11), Romans 16:7; and Ephesians 5:21–6:9 and Ephesians 5:21.[23]
  3. ^ A few examples of reverted verses, being translated in accordance with the ESV's translation philosophy, are as follows: Isaiah 7:14 (now using "Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son"), Psalm 2:12 (now using "Kiss the Son"), and Psalm 45:6 (now using "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever"). The committee also decided to restore the theological term "propitiation" to the following verses: Romans 3:25, Hebrews 2:17; and 1 John 2:2 and 4:10.[28]

References

  1. ^ a b "Preface to the English Standard Version". ESV.org. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2021. The ESV is based on the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible as found in Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (5th ed., 1997) ... The currently renewed respect among Old Testament scholars for the Masoretic text is reflected in the ESV’s attempt, wherever possible, to translate difficult Hebrew passages as they stand in the Masoretic text rather than resorting to emendations or to finding an alternative reading in the ancient versions. In exceptional, difficult cases, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syriac Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate, and other sources were consulted to shed possible light on the text, or, if necessary, to support a divergence from the Masoretic text.
  2. ^ a b "Preface to the English Standard Version". ESV.org. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2021. [The ESV is based] on the Greek text in the 2014 editions of the Greek New Testament (5th corrected ed.), published by the United Bible Societies (UBS), and Novum Testamentum Graece (28th ed., 2012), edited by Nestle and Aland. ... in a few difficult cases in the New Testament, the ESV has followed a Greek text different from the text given preference in the UBS/Nestle-Aland 28th edition.
  3. ^ "ESV Readability (Grade Levels)". Crossway. August 8, 2005. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "About the ESV". ESV.org. Archived from the original on January 4, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Preface to the English Standard Version". ESV.org. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2021. The ESV publishing team has included more than a hundred people. The fourteen-member Translation Oversight Committee benefited from the work of more than fifty biblical experts serving as Translation Review Scholars and from the comments of the more than fifty members of the Advisory Council, all of which was carried out under the auspices of the Crossway Board of Directors. This hundred-plus-member team shares a common commitment to the truth of God’s Word and to historic Christian orthodoxy and is international in scope, including leaders in many denominations.
  6. ^ a b "Oversight Committee". ESV.org. Archived from the original on November 25, 2020. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  7. ^ a b "Review Scholars". ESV.org. Archived from the original on November 28, 2020. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d "Preface to the English Standard Version". ESV.org. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  9. ^ "Endorsements". ESV.org. Archived from the original on April 11, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  10. ^ Packer, J. I. (October 2, 2021). "An Interview with J. I. Packer on the Origin and Significance of the ESV Bible". Crossway. Archived from the original on October 5, 2021. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d Carter, Joe (September 30, 2016). "9 Things You Should Know About the ESV Bible". The Gospel Coalition. Archived from the original on May 31, 2020. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  12. ^ "The History of the English Standard Version". Vimeo (Crossway). October 24, 2018. Archived from the original on January 3, 2021. Retrieved January 4, 2021. And then in 1997 I had a call from John Piper, and John Piper said, 'Yes, we really do need this.' And so, I made a phone call to obtain the rights to the RSV text; and to adapt and revise, and basically create a new translation.
  13. ^ a b c d Bayly, David (May 6, 1999). "Decline of the NIV?". World. Archived from the original on April 3, 2021. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  14. ^ "Translation Process". NIV Bible. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  15. ^ Olasky, Susan (June 14, 1997). "Bailing Out of the Stealth Bible". World. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  16. ^ "ESV Study Bible". Crossway. Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  17. ^ Hodges, Sam (March 20, 2009). "'ESV Study Bible' wins Christian Book of the Year award". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on January 7, 2020. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
  18. ^ Strauss, Mark L. (November 25, 2008). "Why the English Standard Version (ESV) should not become the Standard English Version: How to make a good translation much better" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 13, 2021. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  19. ^ Mounce, Bill (November 25, 2008). "ETS Day 2 by Bill Mounce". Zondervan Academic. Archived from the original on March 4, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  20. ^ Mounce, Bill (November 23, 2009). "ETS Paper on ESV/TNIV (Monday with Mounce 50)". Zondervan Academic. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  21. ^ a b Perry, Samuel L. (October 21, 2019). Marti, Gerardo (ed.). "The Bible as a Product of Cultural Power: The Case of Gender Ideology in the English Standard Version". Sociology of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association for the Sociology of Religion. 81 (1): 68–92. doi:10.1093/socrel/srz022. eISSN 1759-8818. ISSN 1069-4404. LCCN 93642782. OCLC 30932266. Archived from the original on July 26, 2021.
  22. ^ a b c d ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. 2008. ISBN 978-1-4335-0241-5. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  23. ^ Mac Donald, Sarah (October 29, 2020). "Priests warn against language of new lectionary". The Tablet. Archived from the original on January 6, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  24. ^ Perry, Samuel L. (June 23, 2021). Jain, Andrea R. (ed.). "Whitewashing Evangelical Scripture: The Case of Slavery and Antisemitism in the English Standard Version". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Religion. 89 (2): 612–643. doi:10.1093/jaarel/lfab054. eISSN 1477-4585. ISSN 0002-7189. LCCN sc76000837. OCLC 1479270. Archived from the original on July 26, 2021.
  25. ^ Ward, Mark (July 19, 2021). "Did Evangelical Snowflakes Censor the Bible?". By Faith We Understand. Archived from the original on July 26, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  26. ^ Stec, David M. (July 2004). Schellenberg, Annette (ed.). "Review: The Holy Bible: English Standard Version". Vetus Testamentum. Leiden: Brill Publishers on behalf of the International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament. 54 (3): 421. eISSN 1568-5330. ISSN 0042-4935. JSTOR 1518879. LCCN 56003071. OCLC 46606373.
  27. ^ a b Grudem, Wayne (July 6, 2015). "The Advantages of the English Standard Version (ESV) Translation" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  28. ^ Challies, Tim (March 6, 2019). "The Book that Has Most Influenced My Writing". Tim Challies. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  29. ^ Butterfield, Glen (2013). Bible Unity. WestBowPress. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-4908-0549-8. The ESV underwent a minor revision in 2007.
  30. ^ Dennis, Lane T. "ESV 2011 Text Changes" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 26, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  31. ^ Butterfield, Glen (2013). Bible Unity. WestBowPress. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-4908-0549-8. The most notable verse change was 'wounded for our transgressions' to 'pierced for our transgressions' in Isaiah 53:5 which matched the New American Standard Bible rendering.
  32. ^ a b "ESV Permanent Text Edition (2016): Word Changes". ESV.org. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  33. ^ Showalter, Brandon (September 17, 2016). "ESV Bible Translation Revisions 'Potentially Dangerous,' Biblical Scholar Warns". Christian Post. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  34. ^ ESV Pew Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. 2018. ISBN 978-1-4335-6343-0. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  35. ^ ESV Reader's Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. 2016. ISBN 978-1-4335-5347-9. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021.
  36. ^ Laughlin, Bryan (June 25, 2018). "Should We Contextualize the Gospel?". Tabletalk Magazine. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  37. ^ Challies, Tim (October 13, 2016). "You, Me, and the ESV". Tim Challies. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  38. ^ Weber, Jeremy (September 28, 2016). "Theology: Crossway Reverses Decision to Make ESV Bible Text Permanent (Amid much public debate, publisher says strategy for a 'stable' Bible was a 'mistake')". Christianity Today (September 2016). Archived from the original on August 5, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  39. ^ "Catholic Edition of ESV Bible Launched". Daijiworld. February 10, 2018. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  40. ^ a b Smith, Peter Jesserer (May 13, 2020). "Augustine Institute Publishes Major New Catholic Bible". National Catholic Register. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  41. ^ "ESV Catholic Edition Bible". ESV® Catholic Edition Bible. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021. It was reviewed by a team of Catholic scholars in India, who modified the translation to ensure it adhered to Catholic teaching.
  42. ^ Chapman, Peter (January 29, 2021). "Differences Between the ESV and ESV-CE" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 20, 2021. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  43. ^ "The Augustine Bible (ESV-CE)". Logos Bible Software. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  44. ^ "CCBI Releases New Lectionary". Indian Catholic Matters. February 16, 2021. Archived from the original on January 6, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  45. ^ "A New Lectionary for Scotland". Scottish Catholic Media Office. July 24, 2020. Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  46. ^ ESV: Anglican Edition. Huntington Beach, CA: Anglican Liturgy Press. 2019. ISBN 978-1-7323448-6-0.
  47. ^ "ESV with Apocrypha". Anglican House Publishers. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  48. ^ "Gideons go for the ESV". Eternity News. December 4, 2014. Archived from the original on April 12, 2021. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  49. ^ a b English Standard Version Bible with Apocrypha. New York: Oxford University Press. 2009. ISBN 978-0-1952-8910-7. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  50. ^ ESV Global Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. 2012. ISBN 978-1-4335-3153-8. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  51. ^ ESV Student Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. 2015. ISBN 978-1-4335-4805-5. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  52. ^ ESV Literary Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. 2020. ISBN 978-1-4335-6871-8. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  53. ^ The ESV, MacArthur Study Bible, 2nd Edition. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Incorporated. 2021. ISBN 978-0-7852-3550-7. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  54. ^ The Lutheran Study Bible. St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. 2009. ISBN 978-0-7586-1760-6. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  55. ^ Reformation Study Bible. Sanford, FL: Ligonier Ministries. 2015. ISBN 978-1-56769-441-3. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  56. ^ Fire Bible. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers Marketing, LLC. 2014. ISBN 978-1-61970-148-9. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  57. ^ The Apocrypha: The Lutheran Edition with Notes. St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. 2012. ISBN 978-0-7586-2547-2. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  58. ^ The Scofield Study Bible III. New York: Oxford University Press. 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-527875-0. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  59. ^ Ryrie Study Bible. Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers. 2011. ISBN 978-0-8024-7562-6. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  60. ^ "10 years of 'Lutheran Service Book'". Reporter (Official Newspaper of The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod). November 28, 2016. Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  61. ^ a b Lutheran Service Book, Pew Edition. St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7586-1217-5.

Further reading

External links

Original content from Wikipedia, shared with licence Creative Commons By-Sa - English Standard Version