Mustela putorius furo Linnaeus, 1758
The ferret (Mustela furo) is a small, domesticated species belonging to the family Mustelidae. The ferret is most likely a domesticated form of the wild European polecat (Mustela putorius), evidenced by their interfertility. Other mustelids include the stoat, badger and mink.
Physically, ferrets resemble other mustelids because of their long, slender bodies. Including their tail, the average length of a ferret is about 50 cm (20 in); they weigh between 0.7 and 2.0 kg (1.5 and 4.4 lb); and their fur can be black, brown, white, or a mixture of those colours. In this sexually dimorphic species, males are considerably larger than females.
Ferrets may have been domesticated since ancient times, but there is widespread disagreement because of the sparseness of written accounts and the inconsistency of those which survive. Contemporary scholarship agrees that ferrets were bred for sport, hunting rabbits in a practice known as rabbiting. In North America, the ferret has become an increasingly prominent choice of household pet, with over five million in the United States alone. The legality of ferret ownership varies by location. In New Zealand and some other countries, restrictions apply due to the damage done to native fauna by feral colonies of polecat–ferret hybrids. The ferret has also served as a fruitful research animal, contributing to research in neuroscience and infectious disease, especially influenza.
The domestic ferret is often confused with the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), a species native to North America.
The name "ferret" is derived from the Latin furittus, meaning "little thief", a likely reference to the common ferret penchant for secreting away small items. In Old English (Anglo-Saxon), the animal was called a "meard" or "mearp." The word "fyret" seems to appear in Middle English in the 14th century from the Latin, with the modern spelling of "ferret" by the 16th century.
The Greek word ἴκτις íktis, Latinized as ictis occurs in a play written by Aristophanes, The Acharnians, in 425 BC. Whether this was a reference to ferrets, polecats, or the similar Egyptian mongoose is uncertain.
A male ferret is called a hob; a female ferret is a jill. A spayed female is a sprite, a neutered male is a gib, and a vasectomised male is known as a hoblet. Ferrets under one year old are known as kits. A group of ferrets is known as a "business", or historically as a "busyness". Other purported collective nouns, including "besyness", "fesynes", "fesnyng", and "feamyng", appear in some dictionaries, but are almost certainly ghost words.
Ferrets have a typical mustelid body-shape, being long and slender. Their average length is about 50 cm (20 in) including a 13 cm (5.1 in) tail. Their pelage has various colorations including brown, black, white or mixed. They weigh between 0.7 and 2.0 kg (1.5 and 4.4 lb) and are sexually dimorphic as the males are substantially larger than females. The average gestation period is 42 days and females may have two or three litters each year. The litter size is usually between three and seven kits which are weaned after three to six weeks and become independent at three months. They become sexually mature at approximately 6 months and the average life span is 7 to 10 years. Ferrets are induced ovulators.
Ferrets spend 14–18 hours a day asleep and are most active around the hours of dawn and dusk, meaning they are crepuscular. If they are caged, they should be taken out daily to exercise and satisfy their curiosity; they need at least an hour and a place to play. Unlike their polecat ancestors, which are solitary animals, most ferrets will live happily in social groups. They are territorial, like to burrow, and prefer to sleep in an enclosed area.
Like many other mustelids, ferrets have scent glands near their anus, the secretions from which are used in scent marking. Ferrets can recognize individuals from these anal gland secretions, as well as the sex of unfamiliar individuals. Ferrets may also use urine marking for sex and individual recognition.
As with skunks, ferrets can release their anal gland secretions when startled or scared, but the smell is much less potent and dissipates rapidly. Most pet ferrets in the US are sold descented (with the anal glands removed). In many other parts of the world, including the UK and other European countries, de-scenting is considered an unnecessary mutilation.
If excited, they may perform a behavior called the "weasel war dance", characterized by frenzied sideways hops, leaps and bumping into nearby objects. Despite its common name, it is not aggressive but is a joyful invitation to play. It is often accompanied by a unique soft clucking noise, commonly referred to as "dooking". When scared, ferrets will hiss; when upset, they squeak softly.
Ferrets are obligate carnivores. The natural diet of their wild ancestors consisted of whole small prey, including meat, organs, bones, skin, feathers, and fur. Ferrets have short digestive systems and a quick metabolism, so they need to eat frequently. Prepared dry foods consisting almost entirely of meat (including high-grade cat food, although specialized ferret food is increasingly available and preferable) provide the most nutritional value. Some ferret owners feed pre-killed or live prey (such as mice and rabbits) to their ferrets to more closely mimic their natural diet. Ferret digestive tracts lack a cecum and the animal is largely unable to digest plant matter. Before much was known about ferret physiology, many breeders and pet stores recommended food like fruit in the ferret diet, but it is now known that such foods are inappropriate, and may in fact have negative consequences for ferret health. Ferrets imprint on their food at around six months old. This can make introducing new foods to an older ferret a challenge, and even simply changing brands of kibble may meet with resistance from a ferret that has never eaten the food as a kit. It is therefore advisable to expose young ferrets to as many different types and flavors of appropriate food as possible.
Ferrets have four types of teeth (the number includes maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth) with a dental formula of 126.96.36.199.1.4.2:
- Twelve small incisor teeth (only 2–3 mm [3⁄32–1⁄8 in] long) located between the canines in the front of the mouth. These are used for grooming.
- Four canines used for killing prey.
- Twelve premolar teeth that the ferret uses to chew food—located at the sides of the mouth, directly behind the canines. The ferret uses these teeth to cut through flesh, using them in a scissors action to cut the meat into digestible chunks.
- Six molars (two on top and four on the bottom) at the far back of the mouth are used to crush food.
Ferrets are known to suffer from several distinct health problems. Among the most common are cancers affecting the adrenal glands, pancreas, and lymphatic system.
Adrenal disease, a growth of the adrenal glands that can be either hyperplasia or cancer, is most often diagnosed by signs like unusual hair loss, increased aggression, and difficulty urinating or defecating. Treatment options include surgery to excise the affected glands, melatonin or deslorelin implants, and hormone therapy. The causes of adrenal disease speculated to include unnatural light cycles, diets based around processed ferret foods, and prepubescent neutering. It has also been suggested that there may be a hereditary component to adrenal disease.
Insulinoma, a type of cancer of the islet cells of the pancreas, is the most common form of cancer in ferrets. It is most common in ferrets between the ages of 4 and 5 years old.
Lymphoma is the most common malignancy in ferrets. Ferret lymphosarcoma occurs in two forms -- juvenile lymphosarcoma, a fast-growing type that affects ferrets younger than two years, and adult lymphosarcoma, a slower-growing form that affects ferrets four to seven years old.
Viral diseases include canine distemper, influenza and ferret systemic coronavirus.
A high proportion of ferrets with white markings which form coat patterns known as a blaze, badger, or panda coat, such as a stripe extending from their face down the back of their head to their shoulder blades, or a fully white head, have a congenital deafness (partial or total) which is similar to Waardenburg syndrome in humans. Ferrets without white markings, but with premature graying of the coat, are also more likely to have some deafness than ferrets with solid coat colors which do not show this trait. Most albino ferrets are not deaf; if deafness does occur in an albino ferret, this may be due to an underlying white coat pattern which is obscured by the albinism.
Health problems can occur in unspayed females when not being used for breeding. Similar to domestic cats, ferrets can also suffer from hairballs and dental problems. Ferrets will also often chew on and swallow foreign objects which can lead to bowel obstruction.
History of domestication
In common with most domestic animals, the original reason for ferrets being domesticated by human beings is uncertain, but it may have involved hunting. According to phylogenetic studies, the ferret was domesticated from the European polecat (Mustela putorius), and likely descends from a North African lineage of the species. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggests that ferrets were domesticated around 2,500 years ago. It has been claimed that the ancient Egyptians were the first to domesticate ferrets, but as no mummified remains of a ferret have yet been found, nor any hieroglyph of a ferret, and no polecat now occurs wild in the area, that idea seems unlikely. The American Society of Mammalogists classifies M. furo as a distinct species.
Ferrets were probably used by the Romans for hunting. Genghis Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire, is recorded as using ferrets in a gigantic hunt in 1221 that aimed to purge an entire region of wild animals.
Colonies of feral ferrets have established themselves in areas where there is no competition from similarly sized predators, such as in the Shetland Islands and in remote regions in New Zealand. Where ferrets coexist with polecats, hybridization is common. It has been claimed that New Zealand has the world's largest feral population of ferret–polecat hybrids. In 1877, farmers in New Zealand demanded that ferrets be introduced into the country to control the rabbit population, which was also introduced by humans. Five ferrets were imported in 1879, and in 1882–1883, 32 shipments of ferrets were made from London, totaling 1,217 animals. Only 678 landed, and 198 were sent from Melbourne, Australia. On the voyage, the ferrets were mated with the European polecat, creating a number of hybrids that were capable of surviving in the wild. In 1884 and 1886, close to 4,000 ferrets and ferret hybrids, 3,099 weasels and 137 stoats were turned loose. Concern was raised that these animals would eventually prey on indigenous wildlife once rabbit populations dropped, and this is exactly what happened to New Zealand's bird species which previously had had no mammalian predators.
For millennia, the main use of ferrets was for hunting, or "ferreting". With their long, lean build, and inquisitive nature, ferrets are very well equipped for getting down holes and chasing rodents, rabbits and moles out of their burrows. The Roman historians Pliny and Strabo record that Caesar Augustus sent "viverrae" from Libya to the Balearic Islands to control rabbit plagues there in 6 BC; it is speculated that "viverrae" could refer to ferrets, mongooses, or polecats. In England, in 1390, a law was enacted restricting the use of ferrets for hunting to the relatively wealthy:
it is ordained that no manner of layman which hath not lands to the value of forty shillings a year shall from henceforth keep any greyhound or other dog to hunt, nor shall he use ferrets, nets, heys, harepipes nor cords, nor other engines for to take or destroy deer, hares, nor conies, nor other gentlemen's game, under pain of twelve months' imprisonment.
Ferrets were first introduced into the American continents in the 17th century, and were used extensively from 1860 until the start of World War II to protect grain stores in the American West from rodents. They are still used for hunting in some countries, including the United Kingdom, where rabbits are considered a pest by farmers. The practice is illegal in several countries where it is feared that ferrets could unbalance the ecology. In 2009 in Finland, where ferreting was previously unknown, the city of Helsinki began to use ferrets to restrict the city's rabbit population to a manageable level. Ferreting was chosen because in populated areas it is considered to be safer and less ecologically damaging than shooting the rabbits.
In the United States, ferrets were relatively rare pets until the 1980s. A government study by the California State Bird and Mammal Conservation Program estimated that by 1996 about 800,000 domestic ferrets were being kept as pets in the United States.
- Australia: It is illegal to keep ferrets as pets in Queensland and the Northern Territory; in the Australian Capital Territory a licence is required.
- Brazil: Ferrets are allowed only if they are given a microchip identification tag and sterilized.
- New Zealand: It has been illegal to sell, distribute or breed ferrets in New Zealand since 2002 unless certain conditions are met.
- United States: Ferrets were once banned in many US states, but most of these laws were rescinded in the 1980s and 1990s as they became popular pets.
- Illegal: Ferrets are illegal in California under Fish and Game Code Section 2118; and the California Code of Regulations, although it is not illegal for veterinarians in the state to treat ferrets kept as pets. "Ferrets are strictly prohibited as pets under Hawaii law because they are potential carriers of the rabies virus"; the territory of Puerto Rico has a similar law. Ferrets are restricted by individual cities, such as Washington, D.C., and New York City, which renewed its ban in 2015. They are also prohibited on many military bases. A permit to own a ferret is needed in other areas, including Rhode Island. Illinois and Georgia do not require a permit to merely possess a ferret, but a permit is required to breed ferrets. It was once illegal to own ferrets in Dallas, Texas, but the current Dallas City Code for Animals includes regulations for the vaccination of ferrets. Pet ferrets are legal in Wisconsin, however legality varies by municipality. The city of Oshkosh, for example, classifies ferrets as a wild animal and subsequently prohibits them from being kept within the city limits. Also, an import permit from the state department of agriculture is required to bring one into the state. Under common law, ferrets are deemed "wild animals" subject to strict liability for injuries they cause, but in several states statutory law has overruled the common law, deeming ferrets "domestic".
- Japan: In Hokkaido prefecture, ferrets must be registered with the local government. In other prefectures, no restrictions apply.
Ferrets are an important experimental animal model for human influenza, and have been used to study the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) virus. Smith, Andrews, Laidlaw (1933) inoculated ferrets intra-nasally with human naso-pharyngeal washes, which produced a form of influenza that spread to other cage mates. The human influenza virus (Influenza type A) was transmitted from an infected ferret to a junior investigator, from whom it was subsequently re-isolated.
- Ferrets have been used in many broad areas of research, such as the study of pathogenesis and treatment in a variety of human disease, these including studies into cardiovascular disease, nutrition, respiratory diseases such as SARS and human influenza, airway physiology, cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal disease.
- Because they share many anatomical and physiological features with humans, ferrets are extensively used as experimental subjects in biomedical research, in fields such as virology, reproductive physiology, anatomy, endocrinology, and neuroscience.
- In the UK, ferret racing is often a feature of rural fairs or festivals, with people placing small bets on ferrets that run set routes through pipes and wire mesh. Although financial bets are placed, the event is primarily for entertainment purposes as opposed to 'serious' betting sports such as horse or greyhound racing.
- A very small experimental study of ferrets found that a nasal spray effectively blocked the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that causes COVID-19.
Terminology and coloring
Most ferrets are either albinos, with white fur and pink eyes, or display the typical dark masked sable coloration of their wild polecat ancestors. In recent years fancy breeders have produced a wide variety of colors and patterns. Color refers to the color of the ferret's guard hairs, undercoat, eyes, and nose; pattern refers to the concentration and distribution of color on the body, mask, and nose, as well as white markings on the head or feet when present. Some national organizations, such as the American Ferret Association, have attempted to classify these variations in their showing standards.
There are four basic colors. The sable (including chocolate and dark brown), albino, dark eyed white (DEW, also known as black eyed white or BEW), and silver. All the other colors of a ferret are variations on one of these four categories.
Ferrets with a white stripe on their face or a fully white head, primarily blazes, badgers, and pandas, almost certainly carry a congenital defect which shares some similarities to Waardenburg syndrome. This causes, among other things, a cranial deformation in the womb which broadens the skull, white face markings, and also partial or total deafness. It is estimated as many as 75 percent of ferrets with these Waardenburg-like colorings are deaf.
White ferrets were favored in the Middle Ages for the ease in seeing them in thick undergrowth. Leonardo da Vinci's painting Lady with an Ermine is likely mislabelled; the animal is probably a ferret, not a stoat, (for which "ermine" is an alternative name for the animal in its white winter coat). Similarly, the ermine portrait of Queen Elizabeth the First shows her with her pet ferret, which has been decorated with painted-on heraldic ermine spots.
The Ferreter's Tapestry is a 15th-century tapestry from Burgundy, France, now part of the Burrell Collection housed in the Glasgow Museum and Art Galleries. It shows a group of peasants hunting rabbits with nets and white ferrets. This image was reproduced in Renaissance Dress in Italy 1400–1500, by Jacqueline Herald, Bell & Hyman.
Gaston Phoebus' Book of the Hunt was written in approximately 1389 to explain how to hunt different kinds of animals, including how to use ferrets to hunt rabbits. Illustrations show how multicolored ferrets that were fitted with muzzles were used to chase rabbits out of their warrens and into waiting nets.
- Australia – Ferrets cannot be imported into Australia. A report drafted in August 2000 seems to be the only effort made to date to change the situation.
- Canada – Ferrets brought from anywhere except the US require a Permit to Import from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Animal Health Office. Ferrets from the US require only a vaccination certificate signed by a veterinarian. Ferrets under three months old are not subject to any import restrictions.
- European Union – As of July 2004[update], dogs, cats, and ferrets can travel freely within the European Union under the pet passport scheme. To cross a border within the EU, ferrets require at minimum an EU PETS passport and an identification microchip (though some countries will accept a tattoo instead). Vaccinations are required; most countries require a rabies vaccine, and some require a distemper vaccine and treatment for ticks and fleas 24 to 48 hours before entry. Ferrets occasionally need to be quarantined before entering the country. PETS travel information is available from any EU veterinarian or on government websites.
- New Zealand - New Zealand has banned the import of ferrets into the country.
- United Kingdom – The UK accepts ferrets under the EU's PETS travel scheme. Ferrets must be microchipped, vaccinated against rabies, and documented. They must be treated for ticks and tapeworms 24 to 48 hours before entry. They must also arrive via an authorized route. Ferrets arriving from outside the EU may be subject to a six-month quarantine.
- ^ Fox, James G.; Marini, Robert P. (2014). Biology and Diseases of the Ferret (3rd ed.). Ames, Iowa: John Wiley & Sons. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-118-78273-6. OCLC 863695703. Archived from the original on 2022-01-05. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
- ^ ferret Archived 2009-04-24 at the Wayback Machine. Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- ^ a b c d Thomson, P. D. (1951). "A History of the Ferret". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. vi (Autumn): 471–480. doi:10.1093/jhmas/VI.Autumn.471.
- ^ Schilling, Kim; Brown, Susan (2011). Ferrets For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-1-118-05154-2. Archived from the original on 2014-06-27. Retrieved 2016-07-29.
- ^ Borgmann, Dmitri A. (1967). Beyond Language: Adventures in Word and Thought. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 79–80, 146, 251–254. OCLC 655067975.
- ^ "All about ferrets". New Jersey Veterinary Medical Association. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- ^ "Domestic ferret". Elmwood Park Zoo. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- ^ Carroll, R. S., et al. "Coital stimuli controlling luteinizing hormone secretion and ovulation in the female ferret Archived 2021-12-31 at the Wayback Machine." Biology of reproduction 32.4 (1985): 925-933.
- ^ "Ferrets". Pet Health Information. Archived from the original on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- ^ "Ferret as pet care guide". Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- ^ Brown, Susan, A (17 January 2010). "Inherited behavior traits of the domesticated ferret". Weaselwords.com. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- ^ Clapperton BK, Minot EO, Crump DR (April 1988). "An Olfactory Recognition System in the Ferret Mustela furo L. (Carnivora: Mustelidae)". Animal Behaviour. 36 (2): 541–553. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(88)80025-3. S2CID 53197938.
- ^ Zhang JX, Soini HA, Bruce KE, Wiesler D, Woodley SK, Baum MJ, Novotny MV (November 2005). "Putative Chemosignals of the Ferret (Mustela furo) Associated with Individual and Gender Recognition". Chemical Senses. 30 (9): 727–737. doi:10.1093/chemse/bji065. PMID 16221798. Online.
- ^ Mitchell, Mark A.; Tully, Thomas N. (2009). Manual of exotic pet practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 372. ISBN 978-1-4160-0119-5. Archived from the original on 2014-01-12. Retrieved 2016-07-29.
- ^ Schilling, Kim; Brown, Susan (2011). Ferrets For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-118-05154-2. Archived from the original on 2013-12-04. Retrieved 2016-07-29.
- ^ Tynes, Valerie V. (2010). Behavior of Exotic Pets. Chichester, West Sussex: Blackwell Pub. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-8138-0078-3.
- ^ Williams, Bruce H. (January 1999) Controversy and Confusion in Interpretation of Ferret Clinical Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology: "... the ferret, being by nature an obligate carnivore, has an extremely short digestive tract, and requires meals as often as every four to six hours."
- ^ Rethinking The Ferret Diet – Info about species-appropriate diets, and the negative effects of commercially prepared diets, written by a veterinarian Archived 2010-07-22 at the Wayback Machine. Veterinarypartner.com. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- ^ McLeod, Lianne. Feeding Your Ferret Archived 2013-04-13 at the Wayback Machine. exoticpets.about.com
- ^ "Feeding Ferrets whole rabbits ?". The Hunting Life. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- ^ "Raw Diets". For Ferrets Only. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- ^ "Gastrointestinal Disease in the Ferret". Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". American Ferret Association. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- ^ Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A (2006). "Proceedings of the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians" (PDF). AEMV. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
- ^ Bakthavatchalu, V; Muthupalani, S; Marini, RP; Fox, JG (March 2016). "Endocrinopathy and Aging in Ferrets". Veterinary Pathology. 53 (2): 349–65. doi:10.1177/0300985815623621. PMC 5397995. PMID 26936751.
- ^ "Lymphoma or Lymphosarcoma in Ferrets". vca_corporate.
- ^ "Ferret Distemper". CVMBS News. October 21, 2015.
- ^ "Human Influenza Virus in Ferrets". Petmd.com.
- ^ Jerry Murray, DVM (16 April 2014). "What's New With Ferret FIP-like Disease?" (xls).
- ^ a b Strain, GM (2015). "The genetics of deafness in domestic animals". Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2: 29. doi:10.3389/fvets.2015.00029. PMC 4672198. PMID 26664958.
- ^ Piazza, S; Abitbol, M; Gnirs, K; Huynh, M; Cauzinille, L (1 May 2014). "Prevalence of deafness and association with coat variations in client-owned ferrets". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 244 (9): 1047–52. doi:10.2460/javma.244.9.1047. PMID 24739114.
- ^ Van Dahm, Mary (16 January 2010). "An Owners Guide to Ferret Health Care". WeaselWords.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- ^ Drake, Samantha. "How to Take Care of a Ferret: Ferret care 101". Petmd.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- ^ Sato JJ, Hosoda T, Wolsan M, Tsuchiya K, Yamamoto M, Suzuki H (February 2003). "Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among mustelids (Mammalia: Carnivora) based on nucleotide sequences of the nuclear interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes". Zoological Science. 20 (2): 243–64. doi:10.2108/zsj.20.243. PMID 12655187. S2CID 33505504.
- ^ Church, Bob. "Ferret FAQ – Natural History". ferretcentral.org. Archived from the original on 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
- ^ "Explore the Database". Mammaldiversity.org. Archived from the original on 2021-06-24. Retrieved 2021-07-01.
- ^ Matulich, Erika, PhD (2000). "Ferret Domesticity: A Primer". Ferrets USA. Archived from the original on 2008-04-13. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- ^ Brown, Susan, DVM. "History of the Ferret". Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- ^ "Feral Ferrets in New Zealand". California's Plants and Animals. California Department of Fish and Game. Archived from the original on 2006-09-05. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- ^ "Rabbit control". A Hundred Years of Rabbit Impacts, and Future Control Options. New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) Rabbit Biocontrol Advisory Group. Archived from the original on June 17, 2001. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- ^ Plinius the Elder, Natural History, 8 lxxxi 218 Archived 2022-01-05 at the Wayback Machine (in Latin)
- ^ Pliny the Elder (1601). "LV. Of Hares and Connies.". Natural History, Book VIII. Philemon Holland (trans). Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- ^ Mackay, Thomas, ed. (1891). Plea for Liberty. D. Appleton and Co.
- ^ "In Mystery, Ferret Thefts Sweep Southern England". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2017-03-21. Retrieved 2017-03-13.
- ^ Jurek, R. M. (1998). A review of national and California population estimates of pet ferrets Archived 2013-04-19 at the Wayback Machine. Calif. Dep. Fish and Game, Wildl. Manage. Div., Bird and Mammal Conservation Program Rep. 98-09. Sacramento, CA.
- ^ McCosker, Amy; Schremmer, Jessica (24 January 2018). "Ferrets to remain illegal in QLD". ABC News. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- ^ Latham, Dayle (30 April 2019). "Ferrets: curious and coy". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- ^ Wildlife Act 1953 Archived 2010-08-08 at the Wayback Machine – Schedule 8
- ^ "Fish and Game Code Section 2118". California Codes. State of California. Archived from the original on 2013-05-26. Retrieved 2006-09-19. the Code states, in part: "animals of the families Viverridae and Mustelidae in the order Carnivora are restricted because such animals are undesirable and a menace to native wildlife, the agricultural interests of the state, or to the public health or safety."
- ^ "Section 671(c)(2)(K)(5): 'Family Mustelidae'". California Code of Regulations, Title 14: Natural Resources, Division 1: "Fish And Game Commission – Department of Fish And Game", Subdivision 3: "General Regulations", Chapter 3: "Miscellaneous", Section 671: "Importation, Transportation and Possession of Live Restricted Animals". Archived from the original on 2013-08-12. Retrieved 2006-09-19. Ferrets are not among the exceptions to the classification "Those species listed because they pose a threat to native wildlife, the agriculture interests of the state or to public health or safety are termed 'detrimental animals'" and are designated by the letter "D".
- ^ "News Release:Illegal Ferret Found in Kailua". State of Hawaii Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
- ^ a b c Katie Redshoes. "Are Ferrets Legal in ...?". List of Ferret-Free Zones. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
- ^ "New York's Health Board Dashes the Hopes of Ferret Fans". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- ^ Michael M. Grynbaum. "De Blasio's Latest Break With His Predecessors: Ending a Ban on Ferrets". Archived from the original on 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- ^ "R.I. Ferret Regulations" (PDF). State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Department of Environmental Management. June 27, 1997. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- ^ "Wild Bird and Game Bird Breeder Permit Application" (PDF). Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-05. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- ^ "Wild Animals/Exotica". Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
The exotic species listed below, except where otherwise noted, may not be held as pets in Georgia. [...] Carnivores (weasels, ferrets, foxes, cats, bears, wolves, etc.); all species. Note: European ferrets are legal as pets if neutered by 7 months old and vaccinated against rabies.
- ^ "Dallas". Prohibited by Ordinance. Ferret Lover's Club of Texas. 1996–2005. Archived from the original on 2006-09-18. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
- ^ "Animal Services". Dallas City Code, Chapter 7: "Animals"; Article VII: "Miscellaneous". American Legal Publishing Corporation. Archived from the original on 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
- ^ "Companion Animals". Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection. Archived from the original on 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
- ^ Gallick v. Barto, 828 F.Supp. 1168 (M.D.Pa. 1993).
- ^ "Hokkaido Animal Welfare and Control Ordinance". Hokkaido Animal Welfare and Control Ordinance Chapter 2, Section 3. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- ^ Matsuoka, Y.; Lamirande, E. W.; Subbarao, K. (2009). The Ferret Model for Influenza. Current Protocols in Microbiology. Vol. Chapter 15. pp. 15G.2.1–15G.2.29. doi:10.1002/9780471729259.mc15g02s13. ISBN 978-0471729259. PMID 19412910. S2CID 43613423.
- ^ Maher JA, DeStefano J (2004). "The ferret: an animal model to study influenza virus". Lab Animal. 33 (9): 50–53. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.632.711. doi:10.1038/laban1004-50. PMID 15457202. S2CID 30541775.
- ^ Van Den Brand, J. M. A.; Stittelaar, K. J.; Van Amerongen, G.; Rimmelzwaan, G. F.; Simon, J.; De Wit, E.; Munster, V.; Bestebroer, T.; Fouchier, R. A. M.; Kuiken, T.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. (2010). "Severity of Pneumonia Due to New H1N1 Influenza Virus in Ferrets is Intermediate between That Due to Seasonal H1N1 Virus and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 201 (7): 993–9. doi:10.1086/651132. PMC 7110095. PMID 20187747.
- ^ Abanses, J. C.; Arima, S; Rubin, B. K. (2009). "Vicks Vapo Rub induces mucin secretion, decreases ciliary beat frequency, and increases tracheal mucus transport in the ferret trachea". Chest. 135 (1): 143–8. doi:10.1378/chest.08-0095. PMID 19136404.
- ^ Crawford, Richard L.; Adams, Kristina M. (2006). "Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Ferrets". USDA Animal Welfare Information Center. Archived from the original on 2011-02-13.
- ^ "Ferret Racing". Countrymanfairs.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2015-04-23. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
- ^ "Ferret Racing – Starescue – STA Ferret Rescue". Starescue.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2015-04-23. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
- ^ McNeil, Donald G., Jr. (6 November 2020). "Nasal Spray Halts Covid in Ferrets, Study Finds". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- ^ "American Ferret Association: Ferret Color and Pattern Standards". Ferret.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-09. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
- ^ Herald, Jacqueline (1981). Renaissance Dress in Italy 1400–1500. History of Dress 2. London: Bell & Hyman. ISBN 0-391-02362-4. OCLC 925257752.
- ^ "Importation of Ferrets into Australia, Import Risk Analysis – Draft Report" (PDF). Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS). August 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-10. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- ^ "Importation of Foxes, Skunks, Raccoons and Ferrets". Pet Imports. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2006-03-20. Archived from the original on 2009-03-28. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- ^ "Import pets and animals". Customs.govt.nz. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
- ^ "PETS: How to bring your ferret into or back into the UK under the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS)". Animal health & welfare. Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs (defra) Crown copyright 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- Isaacsen, Adolph (1886) All about ferrets and rats
- View the ferret genome on Ensembl
- View the musFur1 genome assembly in the UCSC Genome Browser.