H. D. Deve Gowda

Indian politician

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H. D. Deve Gowda
Prime Minister H. D. Deve Gowda BNC.jpg
H. D. Deve Gowda in 2015
12th Prime Minister of India
In office
1 June 1996 – 21 April 1997
PresidentShankar Dayal Sharma
Preceded byAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Succeeded byI. K. Gujral
Minister of Home Affairs
In office
1 June 1996 – 29 June 1996
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byMurli Manohar Joshi
Succeeded byIndrajit Gupta
14th Chief Minister of Karnataka
In office
11 December 1994 – 31 May 1996
GovernorKhurshed Alam Khan
Preceded byVeerappa Moily
Succeeded byJayadevappa Halappa Patel
Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha
Assumed office
26 June 2020
Preceded byD. Kupendra Reddy
In office
23 September 1996 – 09 April 1998
Preceded byLeeladevi Renuka Prasad
Succeeded byA.Laxmisagar
President of Janata Dal (Secular)
Assumed office
July 1999
Preceded byPosition established
Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha
In office
17 May 2004 – 23 May 2019
Preceded byG. Putta Swamy Gowda
Succeeded byPrajwal Revanna
In office
10 March 1998 – 26 April 1999
Preceded byRudresh Gowda
Succeeded byG. Putta Swamy Gowda
In office
20 June 1991 – 11 December 1994
Preceded byH. C. Srikantaiah
Succeeded byRudresh Gowda
In office
2 February 2002 – 16 May 2004
Preceded byM. V. Chandrashekara Murthy
Succeeded byTejashwini Sreeramesh
Member of the Karnataka Legislative Assembly, Karnataka
In office
Preceded byY. Veerappa
Succeeded byG. Puttaswamy Gowda
In office
In office
1985[1] – 1985
Preceded byC.M. Lingappa
Succeeded byC.M. Lingappa
Preceded byK. G. Srinivasa Murthy
Succeeded byK. L. Shivalinge Gowda
Personal details
Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda

(1933-05-18) 18 May 1933 (age 87)
Haradanahalli, Kingdom of Mysore, British India
(present-day Karnataka, India)
Political partyJanata Dal (Secular)
Other political
(m. 1954)
Children6; including H. D. Revanna,
H. D. Kumaraswamy
EducationDiploma in Civil Engineering
Alma materL. V. Polytechnic, Hassan
ProfessionPolitician, Farmer, Civil Engineer

Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda (born 18 May 1933)[2] is an Indian politician who was the 12th Prime Minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997.[3] He was previously the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996. He presently is a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha representing Karnataka.

Born in a humble farming family, he joined the Indian National Congress party in 1953, and remained a member until 1962. He was imprisoned during the Emergency. He became President of the state unit of Janata Dal in 1994, and was considered to be a driving force in the party's victory in Karnataka. He served as the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996.

In the 1996 general elections, no party won enough seats to form a government. When the United Front, a coalition of regional parties, formed the central government with the support of the Congress, Deve Gowda was unexpectedly chosen to head the government and became the 12th Prime Minister of India. During his tenure as prime minister, he also held the portfolio of Home for some time. His tenure as prime minister lasted for less than a year.

After his prime ministerial tenure, he was elected to the 12th (1998), 14th (2004), 15th, and 16th Lok Sabha, as Member of Parliament for the Hassan Lok Sabha constituency. He lost Lok Sabha elections in 2019 from Tumkuru but has been elected to Rajya Sabha since. He is the National President of the Janata Dal (Secular) party.[4][5]

Early life and education

H. D. Deve Gowda was born on 18 May 1933 in Haradanahalli, a village in Holenarasipura taluk, of the erstwhile Kingdom of Mysore (now in Hassan, Karnataka) into a Vokkaliga caste family, which is categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government. He has given plan for alamatti dam during APJ period[6][7][8] His father Dodde Gowda was a paddy farmer and mother, Devamma.[9][10]

Gowda earned a diploma in civil engineering from L. V. Polytechnic, Hassan, in the late 1950s.[11]

Early career

Deve Gowda and Manmohan Singh
Deve Gowda and Narendra Modi

Joining of Congress

Gowda joined the Indian National Congress party in 1953 and remained a member until 1962. During that period, he was President of Anjaneya Cooperative Society of Holenarasipura and later became a member of the Taluk Development Board of Holenarasipura.

In 1962, Gowda was elected to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly from Holenarasipura constituency as an independent candidate. Later, he was elected from the same constituency to the Assembly for six consecutive terms from 1962 to 1989. He joined the Congress (O) during the Congress split and served as the Leader of Opposition in the Assembly from March 1972 to March 1976 and again from November 1976 to December 1977.[12] During the Emergency (1975–77), he was imprisoned in the Bangalore Central Jail.

In Janata Party

Gowda was the two time President of state unit of the Janata Party. He continued to win from Holenarasipur assembly segment on Janata Party's ticket in 1978, 1983 and 1985. He served as a minister in the Janata Party Government in Karnataka headed by Ramakrishna Hegde from 1983 to 1988. When V P Singh joined Janata Dal, Subramanian Swamy formed Janata Party (Jaya Prakash) faction, and Deve Gowda joined him to become Janata Party (JP)'s Karnataka President. But he lost from Holenarasipur in 1989, and soon later rejoined Janata Dal. [13] He became President of the state unit of Janata Dal in 1994 and was the driving force behind the victory of the party in the 1994 State Assembly elections. He was elected from the Ramanagara, and sworn in as the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka in December.

In January 1995, Gowda toured Switzerland and attended the Forum of International Economists. His tour to Singapore brought in foreign investment to the State.[2]

Prime Minister

In the 1996 general elections, the Congress party headed by P. V. Narasimha Rao lost decisively but no other party won enough seats to form a government. Also given plan for alamatti dam during APJ period. When the United Front (a conglomeration of non-Congress and non-BJP regional parties) decided to form the Government at the Centre with the support of the Congress, Deve Gowda was unexpectedly chosen to head the government and became the 11th Prime Minister of India.[4] He took over as Prime Minister of India on 1 June 1996 and continued until 21 April 1997. Also, he was the Chairman of the Steering Committee of the United Front, the policy making apex body of all the constituents of the ruling front.[4]


The Janata Dal (Secular) traces its roots back to the Janata Party founded by Jayaprakash Narayan who united all the opposition parties under one banner for the 1977 national elections.

The Janata Dal was formed on the merger of the Janata Party with smaller opposition parties in 1988. Vishwanath Pratap Singh became the first Prime Minister of India from Janata Dal when he headed the National Front government in 1989. Later Deve Gowda and Inder Kumar Gujral too became prime ministers heading the United Front (UF) coalition governments in 1996 and 1997 respectively.

In 1999, when some senior leaders of the party decided to join hands with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led NDA, the party split into factions. Many leaders, including Madhu Dandawate and Siddaramaiah, joined the Janata Dal (Secular) faction headed by Deve Gowda, who became the National president of this faction.

He was defeated in the 1999 general elections but staged a comeback by winning the Kanakapura By-elections in 2002.

The 2004 elections in Karnataka witnessed the revival of his party's fortunes under the leadership of Siddaramaiah with the Janata Dal (Secular) winning 58 seats and becoming a part of the ruling coalition in the state. Later, the party joined with the BJP and formed an alternate government in 2006. His son H. D. Kumaraswamy headed the BJP-JD(S) coalition government in the state for 20 months.[14][15] In the 2008 state elections, the party performed poorly and won just 28 seats, but it has remained a significant force in South Karnataka.

Deve Gowda expelled Siddaramaiah and CM Ibrahim JDS party, because Siddaramaiah led AHINDA[16][17][18] movement; representing minority, backward, and Dalit people in Karnataka.[19] Later, both Siddaramaiah and CM Ibrahim joined the Indian National Congress,[20] which won the 2013 Vidhana Sabha election. Siddaramaiah was elected as the Chief Minister of Karnataka state in 2013.[21]

In 2008, JDS did not transfer the power to BJP with B. S. Yediyurappa as CM in accord to the initial negotiation.[22][23][24] This led to major setback for JDS in 2008 vidhana sabha election, JDS received only 28 seats[25] compared to 58 seats[26] in the 2004 vidhana sabha election. Since B. S. Yediyurappa is from Lingayath community, largest in the Karnataka state, many leaders in JDS from Lingayath community such as M.P. Prakash quit the party.[27] B. S. Yediyurappa was elected as the Chief Minister of Karnataka state in 2008.[28] Deve Gowda abused B. S. Yediyurappa, who was then chief minister of Karnataka.[29][30] This event was termed as "new low in Indian politics".[31] Gowda later apologised for hurling abuse at the chief minister of Karnataka.[32]

Both B. S. Yediyurappa and Siddaramaiah eventually became Chief Minister of Karnataka state. JDS party led by Deve Gowda did not make impact in Karnataka politics from 2008 till 2018 general elections. In the 2018 Karnataka Assembly general elections, held on 12 May, there was a three-front competition between INC, BJP and JD(S). BJP won 104 seats, INC won 78 seats and JD(S) won 37 seats to become the King-maker. INC did not want to loose out to BJP and hence immediately have offered unconditional support to JD(S), to form the cabinet. But the governor of Karnataka has rejected this majority support and has called on for BS yeddyurappa to become CM and prove majority in 2 weeks. JDS and INC approached supreme court with the allegation on Governor who misused his powers to form the Karnataka state cabinet & showed partiality. And allowed the BJP to form the cabinet with insufficient seats (1.e 104) Supreme court given judgment that BJP have to prove the strength in a day i.e. on 19 May 2018 in the Assembly. On 19 May B. S. Yeddyurappa failed to prove the majority & hence he resigned after an emotional speech on the floor of assembly. On 23rd of may H. D. Kumaraswamy (Head of coalition INC & JDS) sworn in as CM & proved majority on 25th of may on the floor of assembly.[33][34][35][36][37]

Deve Gowda contested the 2019 general elections against G. S. Basavaraj in Tumkur Lok Sabha constituency of Karnataka. G. S. Basavaraj, BJP candidate of Tumkur Constituency won against Deve Gowda by a margin of 13,339 votes. G. S. Basavaraj polled 5,96,127 votes while Deve Gowda got only 5,82,788 votes.[37]

Personal life

He married Chennamma in 1954. They have six children together: four sons, including politicians H. D. Revanna and H. D. Kumaraswamy, who is the former Chief Minister of Karnataka, and two daughters.[38]

Positions held

Deve Gowda giving a speech
  • 1962–89, 1994-1996 : Member, Karnataka Legislative Assembly (seven terms, losing only in 1989)
  • 1972–76 : Leader of Opposition, Karnataka Legislative Assembly. Elected MLA as NCO candidate from Holenarasipur. [39]
  • 1978 : Janatha Party Member, Karnataka Legislative Assembly, from Holenarasipur
  • 1983–88 : Minister for Public Works and Irrigation, Janata Party's Government of Karnataka. MLA from Holenarasipur.
  • 1989 : Karnataka State President of the new Janata Party (Jaya Prakash) faction. Subramanian Swamy was the national president. [40] He lost assembly election in 1989 as Janata Party (Jaya Prakash) candidate from Holenarasipur [41]
  • 1990 : Left Janata Party (JP) of Subramanian Swamy, and joined Janata Dal
  • 1991 : Elected to 10th Lok Sabha from Hassan (Lok Sabha constituency) as Janata Dal candidate
  • 1991–94 : Member, Committee on Commerce
    • Member, Joint Parliamentary Committee on Fertilizers
    • Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Agriculture
  • 1994 : President, Janata Dal, Karnataka.
  • 1994–96 : Chief Minister of Karnataka, Janata Dal Government
  • Jun. 1996 – Apr. 1997 : Prime Minister of India and also in charge of Ministries/Departments of Petroleum and Chemicals, Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Atomic Energy, Home Affairs, Agriculture, Food Processing Industries, Urban Affairs and Employment and Non-Conventional Energy Sources
  • 1996–98 : Member, Rajya Sabha
  • Nov. 1996-Apr. 1997 : Leader of the House, Rajya Sabha
  • 1998 : Re-elected to 12th Lok Sabha (2nd term).
    • National President, Janata Dal (Secular), which he founded in 1999. But he lost in the 13th Lok Sabha General Elections (in 1999) from Hassan to G Putta Swamy Gowda of Congress[42]
  • 2002 : Entered 13th Lok Sabha winning a by-election from Kanakpura. (3rd term)
  • 2004 : Contested elections for 14th Lok Sabha from two seats.
    • Was elected to 14th Lok Sabha (4th term), from Hassan
    • But lost from Kanakpura, where he came third behind the winner Tejaswini Gowda (Congress) and Ramachandra Gowda (BJP).[43]
  • 2006–2008 : Member, Committee on Railways
  • 2009 : Re-elected to 15th Lok Sabha (5th term)
  • 31 Aug 2009 : Member, Committee on Defence
  • 2014 : Re-elected to 16th Lok Sabha (6th term)
  • 1 Sep 2014 : Appointed member, Standing Committee on Defence
  • 23 May 2019: Lost from Tumkur in 17th Lok Sabha elections.[44] This was the third time he lost a Lok Sabha election as a former Prime Minister, after defeats in 1999 and 2004.
  • 2020 : Elected to Rajya Sabha from Karnataka

See also


  1. ^ https://eci.gov.in/files/file/2511-details-of-bye-elections-from-1952-to-1995/ Details of Assembly By- Elections 1952-1995
  2. ^ a b "Shri H. D. Deve Gowda". pmindia.gov.in. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  3. ^ "Britannica article". Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "JDS Leader: H. D. Deve Gowda Profile". janata.in. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  5. ^ "Hassan Election Result 2019". Times Now. 23 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  6. ^ "The office of Prime Minister: A largely north Indian upper-caste, Hindu affair".
  7. ^ "Caste-based politics has to end in Karnataka: Deve Gowda". NDTV.com. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  8. ^ "In Karnataka politics, caste matters". www.rediff.com. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  9. ^ "Asiaweek article". Retrieved 30 September 2007.
  10. ^ "New Indian Express article". Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  11. ^ "Deve Gowda goes down memory lane". The Hindu. 2 February 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  12. ^ "Janata Dal (Secular)". Janatadalsecular.org.in. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  13. ^ https://resultuniversity.com/election/holenarasipur-karnataka-assembly-constituency
  14. ^ "Janata Dal Secular". Janata.in. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  15. ^ "Janata Dal (Secular)". Janatadalsecular.org.in. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  16. ^ "Siddaramaiah under pressure to revive AHINDA". The Hindu. 23 June 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  17. ^ "AHINDA leaders divided over Siddaramaiah's likely pact with BJP". The Hindu. 7 January 2009. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  18. ^ "Ahinda movement will be strengthened to prevent Dalits from joining Hindutva fold". The Times of India. 24 July 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  19. ^ "JD(S) to expel Siddaramaiah, Ibrahim". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  20. ^ "Siddaramaiah joins Congress". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  21. ^ "Siddaramaiah to be sworn-in as Karnataka Chief Minister on Monday". NDTV.com. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  22. ^ "BJP's assessment of JD(S) was wrong: Venkaiah Naidu". CNN-IBN. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  23. ^ "JDS did not betray BJP, says Kumaraswamy". India - DNA. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  24. ^ "BJP says its Betrayal withdraws Support to JDS in Karnataka". Daijiworld. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  25. ^ "Karnataka Assembly Election Results 2008". Elections in India. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  26. ^ "Karnataka Assembly Election Results 2004". Elections in India. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  27. ^ "Prakash-led rebel group quits JD-S in Karnataka". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  28. ^ "Yeddyurappa sworn-in as Karnataka Chief Minister". Oneindia News. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  29. ^ "Former PM Deve Gowda abuses Karnataka CM". DNA India. 10 January 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  30. ^ "Former PM Gowda calls CM Yeddyurappa a bloody bastard". The Times of India. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  31. ^ "New low in politics, Gowda abuses Yeddyurappa". NDTV. 10 January 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  32. ^ "Deve Gowda abuses Yeddyurappa, then says sorry". Rediff.com. 10 January 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  33. ^ "JD(S), SDPI will have no impact in DK: Ramanath Rai". Coastaldigest.com - The Trusted News Portal of India, Coastal Karnataka Latest news from Mangalore, Udupi, Bhatkal cities. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  34. ^ "Congress Party Sweeps BJP in Karnataka Elections". The Diplomat. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  35. ^ "Seven years later, Congress secures thumping victory in Karnataka : Assembly Elections 2013, News - India Today". Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  36. ^ "Karnataka election results 2013: Have political fortunes really changed? - The Times of India". Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  37. ^ a b "Lok Sabha election results 2019: Former Prime Minister Deve Gowda loses to BJP's GS Basavaraju in Tumkur". CNBCTV18. 23 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  38. ^ Baweja, Harinder (31 January 1997). "The taste of power". India Today. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  39. ^ https://www.elections.in/karnataka/assembly-constituencies/1972-election-results.html
  40. ^ https://magazine.outlookindia.com/story/the-man-who-would-be-pm/201434
  41. ^ https://www.elections.in/karnataka/assembly-constituencies/1989-election-results.html
  42. ^ http://www.elections.in/parliamentary-constituencies/1999-election-results.html
  43. ^ http://www.indiavotes.com/pc/detail/6846/43/14
  44. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Prime Minister of India
Succeeded by
Inder Kumar Gujral
Party political offices
Preceded by
Leader of the Janata Dal (Secular) Party in the 16th Lok Sabha
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