Personification of the Sun
|Symbol||sun, chariot, horses, aureole|
|Day||Sunday (hēméra Hēlíou)|
|Parents||Hyperion and Theia|
|Siblings||Selene and Eos|
|Consort||Many including: Clymene, Clytie, Perse, Rhodos, and Leucothea|
|Children||Actis, Aega, Aegiale, Aeëtes, Aloeus, Astris, Augeas, Bisaltes, Candalus, Cercaphus, the Charites, Circe, the Corybantes, Electryone, the Heliades, the Horae, Ichnaea, Lampetia, Macareus, Ochimus, Pasiphaë, Perses, Phaethon, Phaethusa, Tenages, Thersanon and Triopas|
|Hungarian (magyar) equivalent||Napkirály|
|Part of a series on|
|Ancient Greek religion|
Helios (//; Modern Greek: Ήλιος; Ancient Greek: Ἥλιος; Homeric Greek: Ἠέλιος), Latinized as Helius, is the god and personification of the Sun in ancient Greek religion and myth, often depicted in art with a radiant crown and driving a horse-drawn chariot through the sky. He was a guardian of oaths and also the god of sight.
Though Helios was a relatively minor deity in Classical Greece, his worship grew more prominent in late antiquity thanks to his identification with several major solar divinities of the Roman period, particularly Apollo and Sol. The Roman Emperor Julian made Helios the central divinity of his short-lived revival of traditional Roman religious practices in the 4th century AD.
Helios figures prominently in several works of Greek mythology, poetry, and literature, in which he is often described as the son of the Titans Hyperion and Theia and brother of the goddesses Selene (the Moon) and Eos (the Dawn).
The Greek ἥλιος (from earlier ἡϝελιος /hāwelios/) is the inherited word for the Sun from Proto-Indo-European *seh₂u-el which is cognate with Latin sol, Sanskrit surya, Old English swegl, Old Norse sól, Welsh haul, Avestan hvar, etc. The name Helen is thought to share this etymology and may express an early alternate personification of the sun among Hellenic peoples.
The female offspring of Helios were called Heliades. The Greek sun god had various bynames or epithets, which over time in some cases came to be considered separate deities associated with the Sun. Among these is Hyperion (superus, "high up"), Elektor (of uncertain derivation, often translated as "beaming" or "radiant", especially in the combination Elektor Hyperion), Phaethon "the radiant", Terpsimbrotos ("gladdens mortals"), and Hekatos (also Hekatebolos "far-shooter", i.e. the sun's rays considered as arrows).
Helios is the son of Hyperion and Theia or Euryphaessa or Aethra. Homer in the Odyssey calls him Helios Hyperion ("the Sun up above"), with Hyperion used in a patronymic sense to Helios. In the Odyssey, Theogony and the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Helios is once in each work called Ὑπεριονίδης (Hyperionides, "the son of Hyperion") and this example is followed by many later poets (like Pindar), who distinguish between Helios and Hyperion.
Helios is usually depicted as a handsome young man crowned with the shining aureole of the Sun who drove the chariot of the Sun across the sky each day to Earth-circling Oceanus and through the world-ocean returned to the East at night. In the Homeric Hymn to Helios, Helios is said to drive a golden chariot drawn by steeds; and Pindar speaks of Helios's "fire-darting steeds". Still later, the horses were given fire related names: Pyrois ("The Fiery One"), Aeos ("He who turns the sky"), Aethon ("Blazing"), and Phlegon ("Burning").
The imagery surrounding a chariot-driving solar deity is likely Indo-European in origin and is common to both early Greek and Near Eastern religions. The earliest artistic representations of the "chariot god" come from the Parthian period (3rd century) in Persia where there is evidence of rituals being performed for the sun god by Magi, indicating an assimilation of the worship of Helios and Mithras.
Helios is seen as both a personification of the Sun and the fundamental creative power behind it and as a result is often worshiped as a god of life and creation. Homer described Helios as a god "who gives joy to mortals" and other ancient texts give him the epithet "gracious" (ἱλαρός), given that he is the source of life and regeneration and associated with the creation of the world. One passage recorded in the Greek Magical Papyri says of Helios, "the earth flourished when you shone forth and made the plants fruitful when you laughed and brought to life the living creatures when you permitted."
Archaic and Classical Greece
L.R. Farnell assumed "that sun-worship had once been prevalent and powerful among the people of the pre-Hellenic culture, but that very few of the communities of the later historic period retained it as a potent factor of the state religion". The largely Attic literary sources used by scholars present ancient Greek religion with an Athenian bias, and, according to J. Burnet, "no Athenian could be expected to worship Helios or Selene, but he might think them to be gods, since Helios was the great god of Rhodes and Selene was worshiped at Elis and elsewhere". James A. Notopoulos considered Burnet's distinction to be artificial: "To believe in the existence of the gods involves acknowledgment through worship, as Laws 87 D, E shows" (note, p. 264). Aristophanes' Peace (406–413) contrasts the worship of Helios and Selene with that of the more essentially Greek Twelve Olympians, as the representative gods of the Achaemenid Persians (See also: Hvare-khshaeta, Mah); all the evidence shows that Helios and Selene were minor gods to the Greeks.
The island of Rhodes was an important cult center for Helios, one of the only places where he was worshipped as a major deity in ancient Greece. The worship of Helios at Rhodes included a ritual in which a quadriga, or chariot drawn by four horses, was driven over a precipice into the sea, in reenactment to the myth of Phaethon. Annual gymnastic tournaments were held in Helios' honor. The Colossus of Rhodes was dedicated to him. The Rhodians called shrine of Helios, Haleion (Ancient Greek: Ἄλειον). Athenaeus also mentions that the Rhodians celebrated a festival, the Halieia, in his honour. Helios also had a significant cult on the acropolis of Corinth on the Greek mainland.
The Dorians also seem to have revered Helios, and to have hosted His primary cult on the mainland. The scattering of cults of the sun god in Sicyon, Argos, Hermione, Epidaurus and Laconia, and his holy livestock flocks at Taenarum, seem to suggest that the deity was considerably important in Dorian religion, compared to other parts of ancient Greece. Additionally, it may have been the Dorians who brought his worship to Rhodes.
The tension between the mainstream traditional religious veneration of Helios, which had become enriched with ethical values and poetical symbolism in Pindar, Aeschylus and Sophocles, and the Ionian proto-scientific examination of the sun, a phenomenon of the study Greeks termed meteora, clashed in the trial of Anaxagoras c. 450 BC, in which Anaxagoras asserted that the Sun was in fact a gigantic red-hot ball of metal. His trial was a forerunner of the culturally traumatic trial of Socrates for irreligion, in 399 BC.
Conflation with Apollo
In Homeric literature, Apollo was clearly identified as a different god, a plague-dealer with a silver (not golden) bow and no solar features. The earliest certain reference to Apollo being identified with Helios appears in the surviving fragments of Euripides' play Phaethon in a speech near the end (fr 781 N²) – Clymene, Phaethon's mother, laments that Helios has destroyed her child, that Helios whom men rightly call Apollo (the name Apollo is here understood to mean Apollon "Destroyer").
By Hellenistic times Apollo had become closely connected with the Sun in cult and Phoebus (Greek Φοῖβος, "bright"), the epithet most commonly given to Apollo, was later applied by Latin poets to the sun-god Sol.
The identification became a commonplace in philosophic texts and appears in the writing of Parmenides, Empedocles, Plutarch and Crates of Thebes among others, as well as appearing in some Orphic texts. Pseudo-Eratosthenes writes about Orpheus in Catasterismi, section 24:
- But having gone down into Hades because of his wife and seeing what sort of things were there, he did not continue to worship Dionysus, because of whom he was famous, but he thought Helios to be the greatest of the gods, Helios whom he also addressed as Apollo. Rousing himself each night toward dawn and climbing the mountain called Pangaion, he would await the Sun's rising, so that he might see it first. Therefore, Dionysus, being angry with him, sent the Bassarides, as Aeschylus the tragedian says; they tore him apart and scattered the limbs.
Classical Latin poets also used Phoebus as a byname for the sun-god, whence come common references in later European poetry to Phoebus and his chariot as a metaphor for the Sun but, in particular instances in myth, Apollo and Helios are distinct. The sun-god, the son of Hyperion, with his sun chariot, though often called Phoebus ("shining") is not called Apollo except in purposeful non-traditional identifications.
By Late Antiquity, Helios had accumulated a number of religious, mythological, and literary elements from other deities, particularly Apollo and the Roman sun god Sol. In 274 AD, on December 25, the Roman Emperor Aurelian instituted an official state cult to Sol Invictus (or Helios Megistos, "Great Helios"). This new cult drew together imagery not only associated with Helios and Sol, but also a number of syncretic elements from other deities formerly recognized as distinct. Other syncretic materials from this period include an Orphic Hymn to Helios; the so-called Mithras Liturgy, where Helios is said to rule the elements; spells and incantations invoking Helios among the Greek Magical Papyri; a Hymn to Helios by Proclus; Julian's Oration to Helios, the last stand of official paganism; and an episode in Nonnus' Dionysiaca. Helios in these works is frequently equated not only with deities such as Mithras and Harpocrates, but even with the monotheistic Judaeo-Christian god.
The last pagan emperor of Rome, Julian, made Helios the primary deity of his revived pagan religion, which combined elements of Mithraism with Neoplatonism. For Julian, Helios was a triunity: The One, which governs the highest realm containing Plato's Forms, or intelligible gods; Helios-Mithras, the supreme god of the Intellectual realm; and the Sun, the physical manifestation of Helios in the Encosmic, or visible realm. Because the primary location of Helios in this scheme was the "middle" realm, Julian considered him to be a mediator and unifier not just of the three realms of being, but of all things (which was a concept likely imported from Mithraism, and also may have been influenced by the Christian idea of the Logos). Julian's theological conception of Helios has been described as "practically monotheistic", in contrast to earlier Neoplatonists like Iamblichus, though he also included the other traditional gods worshiped around the ancient Mediterranean as both distinct entities and also certain principles or manifestations that emanate from Helios.
A mosaic found in the Vatican Necropolis (mausoleum M) depicts a figure very similar in style to Sol / Helios, crowned with solar rays and driving a solar chariot. Some scholars have interpreted this as a depiction of Christ, noting that Clement of Alexandria wrote of Christ driving his chariot across the sky. Some scholars doubt the Christian associations, or suggest that the figure is merely a non-religious representation of the sun.
In the Greek Magical Papyri
Helios figured prominently in the Greek Magical Papyri, a collection of hymns, rituals, and magic spells used from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD all around the Greco-Roman world. In these mostly fragmentary texts, Helios is credited with a broad domain, being regarded as the creator of life, the lord of the heavens and the cosmos, and the god of the sea. He is said to take the form of 12 animals representing each hour of the day, a motif also connected with the 12 signs of the zodiac.
The Papyri often syncretize Helios with a variety of related deities. He is described as "seated on a lotus, decorated with rays", in the manner of Harpocrates, who was often depicted seated on a lotus flower, representing the rising sun. According to the Neoplatonist philosopher Iamblichus, "sitting on a lotus implies pre-eminence over the mud, without ever touching the mud, and also displays intellectual and empyrean leadership."
Helios is also assimilated with Mithras in some of the Papyri, as he was by Emperor Julian. The Mithras Liturgy combines them as Helios-Mithras, who is said to have revealed the secrets of immortality to the magician who wrote the text. Some of the texts describe Helios Mithras navigating the Sun's path not in a chariot but in a boat, an apparent identification with the Egyptian sun god Ra. Helios is also described as "restraining the serpent", likely a reference to Apophis, the serpent god who, in Egyptian myth, is said to attack Ra's ship during his nightly journey through the underworld.
In many of the Papyri, Helios is also strongly identified with Iao, a name derived from that of the Hebrew god Yahweh, and shares several of his titles including Sabaoth and Adonai. He is also assimilated as the Agathos Daemon (called "the Agathodaimon, the god of the gods"), who is also identified elsewhere in the texts as "the greatest god, lord Horus Harpokrates".
The Neoplatonist philosophers Proclus and Iamblichus attempted to interpret many of the syntheses found in the Greek Magical Papyri and other writings that regarded Helios as all-encompassing, with the attributes of many other divine entities. Proclus described Helios as a cosmic god consisting of many forms and traits. These are "coiled up" within his being, and are variously distributed to all that "participate in his nature", including angels, daemons, souls, animals, herbs, and stones. All of these things were important to the Neoplatonic practice of theurgy, magical rituals intended to invoke the gods in order to ultimately achieve union with them. Iamblichus noted that theurgy often involved the use of "stones, plants, animals, aromatic substances, and other such things holy and perfect and godlike." For theurgists, the elemental power of these items sacred to particular gods utilizes a kind of sympathetic magic.
Identification with other gods
The Etruscan god of the Sun, equivalent to Helios, was Usil. His name appears on the bronze liver of Piacenza, next to Tiur, the Moon. He appears, rising out of the sea, with a fireball in either outstretched hand, on an engraved Etruscan bronze mirror in late Archaic style, formerly on the Roman antiquities market. On Etruscan mirrors in Classical style, he appears with a halo. In ancient artwork, Usil is shown in close association with Thesan, the goddess of the dawn, something almost never seen with Helios and Eos.
Helios is also sometimes conflated in classical literature with the highest Olympian god, Zeus. Helios is referred either directly as Zeus' eye, or clearly implied to be. For instance, Hesiod effectively describes Zeus's eye as the Sun. This perception is possibly derived from earlier Proto-Indo-European religion, in which the Sun is believed to have been envisioned as the eye of *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr (see Hvare-khshaeta). An Orphic saying, supposedly given by an oracle of Apollo, goes:
When quoting this in his Hymn to King Helios, Emperor Julian replaced the compound name Helios-Dionysus with Serapis, whose native Egyptian counterpart Osiris was identified with Dionysus. On the basis of this oracle, Julian concluded that "among the intellectual gods, Helios and Zeus have a joint or rather a single sovereignty."
Rising and Setting
Helios was envisioned as a god driving his chariot from east to west each day, pulled by four white horses. The chariot and his horses are mentioned by neither Homer nor Hesiod, the earliest work in which they're attested being the Homeric Hymn to Helios. Although the chariot is usually said to be the work of Hephaestus, Hyginus states that it was Helios himself who built it. In one Greek vase painting, Helios appears riding across the sea in the cup of the Delphic tripod which appears to be a solar reference. Athenaeus in his 'Deipnosophistae relates that, at the hour of sunset, Helios climbs into a great cup of solid gold in which he passes from the Hesperides in the farthest west to the land of the Ethiops, with whom he passes the dark hours. According to Athenaeus, Mimnermus said that in the night Helios travels eastwards with the use of a bed (also created by Hephaestus) in which he sleeps, rather than a cup.
Solar eclipses were phaenomena of fear as well as wonder in Ancient Greece, and were seen as the Sun abandoning humanity. In one of his paeans, the lyric poet Pindar describes a solar eclipse as the Sun's light being hidden from the world, a bad omen; according to a fragment of Archilochus, it is Zeus who blocks Helios and makes him disappear from the sky. Plutarch in his Moralia writes that it is "through love of the sun that the moon herself makes her circuit, and has her meetings with him to receive from him all fertility".
Awarding of Rhodes
According to Pindar, when the gods divided the earth among them, Helios was absent, and thus he got no lot of land. He complained to Zeus about it, who offered to do the division of portions again, but Helios refused, for he had seen a new land emerging from the deep of the sea. Helios asked for this island to be given to him, and Zeus agreed. He named it Rhodes, after his lover Rhode (the daughter of Poseidon and Aphrodite or Amphitrite) With Rhode Helios sired seven sons, the Heliadae, who became the first rulers of the island, as well as one daughter, Electryone.
Once Athena was born from Zeus’ head (a sight so impressive that Helios stayed still in the sky for a long while), Helios enjoined the Rhodians to immediately build an altar for the goddess quickly, in order to win her favour. They did as he told them, however they forgot to bring fire with them to properly do the sacrifice. Zeus, however, sent a golden cloud and rained gold on them, and Athena still graced them with unmatched skill in every art.
The most well known story about Helios is the one involving his son Phaethon. Phaethon was Helios’ son by Clymene, or alternatively Rhode or Prote. In one version of the story, Phaethon is Helios' grandson, rather than son, through his father Clymenus. In Ovid's account, Zeus' son Epaphus mocks Phaethon's claim that he is the son of the sun god; Clymene tells Phaethon to go to Helios himself, to ask for confirmation of his paternity. Helios warmly receives his son, and promises him on the river Styx any gift that he might ask; Phaethon asks for the privilege to drive Helios’ chariot for a single day. Although Helios warns his son of how dangerous and disastrous this would be, he is unable to change Phaethon's mind or revoke his promise. Phaethon drives the chariot with catastrophic results; the earth burns when he travels too low, and freezes when he takes the chariot too high. Zeus, in order to save the world, strikes Phaethon with a lightning, killing him. Helios, in his sorrow, refuses to resume his job, but he returns to his tasks at the appeal of the other gods, and Zeus’ threats. In one version of the myth, Helios conveyed his dead son to the stars, as a constellation.
Relating to this is a fable from Aesop, in which Helios announces his intention to get married, causing the frogs to protest intensively. When Zeus, disturbed by all that noise, asks them to explain their stance, they reply that the Sun already burns their ponds on his own just fine; if he gets married and begets even more suns, it will sure doom them.
Rape of Persephone
When Hades abducted Persephone, Helios, who was characterized with the epithet Helios Panoptes ("the all-seeing Sun"), was the only one to witness it. Persephone's mother Demeter, at the suggestion of Hecate, came to him, and asked him if he had seen anything. Helios, sympathizing with her, told her in detail that it was Hades who, with Zeus’ permission, had taken an unwilling Persephone to the Underworld to be his wife.
The Adultery of Ares and Aphrodite
Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus, but she cheated on him with his brother Ares, god of war. Helios caught them in the act, and informed Aphrodite's husband Hephaestus. Upon learning that, Hephaestus forged a net so thin it could hardly be seen, in order to ensnare them. He then announced that he was leaving for Lemnos. Upon hearing that, Ares went to Aphrodite and the two lovers coupled. Helios informed Hephaestus again, who came into the room and trapped them in the net. He then called the other gods to witness the humiliating sight. Later versions add a young man, Alectryon, tasked by Ares to stand guard should anyone approach. But Alectryon fell asleep, allowing Helios to discover the two lovers. In his anger, Ares turned Alectryon into a rooster, a bird that to this day crows at dawn, to announce the arrival of the Sun.
For this, Aphrodite hated Helios and his race for all time.
Leucothoe and Clytia
For Helios’ tale-telling, Aphrodite would have her revenge on him. She made him fall for a mortal princess named Leucothoe, forgetting his previous lover Clytia for her sake. Helios would watch her from above, even making the winter days longer so he could have more time looking at her. Taking the form of her mother, Helios came into the girl's room where he dismissed her servants so he would be left alone with her, and then he took his real form, revealing himself to the girl. However, Clytia, still in love with him, informed Leucothoe's father Orchamus of this affair, and he buried Leucothoe alive in the earth. Helios came too late to rescue her, so instead he poured nectar into the earth, and turned the dead Leucothoe into a frankincense tree. Clytia had hoped that this would get Helios back to her, but he wanted nothing to do with her, angered as he was for his love's death. Clytia stripped herself naked, accepting no food or drink, and sat on a rock for nine days, pining after him. Eventually she turned into the sun-gazing flower, the heliotrope, which follows Helios’ movement in the sky, still in love with him.
When Zeus desired to sleep with Alcmene, he made one night last threefold, hiding the light of the Sun, by ordering Helios not to rise for those three days. From this union, Heracles was born. While Heracles travelled to Erytheia to retrieve the cattle of Geryon for his tenth labour, he crossed the Libyan desert and was so frustrated at the heat that he shot an arrow at Helios, the Sun. Almost immediately, Heracles realized his mistake and apologized profusely, in turn and equally courteous, Helios granted Heracles the golden cup which he used to sail across the sea every night, from the west to the east because he found Heracles’ actions immensely bold. Heracles used this golden cup to reach Erytheia, and after he had taken Geryon's cattle, returned it back to its owner.
Contest with Poseidon
Just like the Athenians had a story about how Athena and Poseidon fought over the patronage of Athens, the Corinthians had a similar story about Corinth. Helios and Poseidon clashed as to who would get to have the city. The Hecatoncheir Briareos was tasked to settle the dispute between the two gods; he awarded the Acrocorinth to Helios, while Poseidon was given the isthmus of Corinth.
Contest with Boreas
In an Aesop fable, Helios and the north wind god Boreas argued about which one between them was the strongest god. They agreed that whoever was able to make a passing traveller remove his cloak would be declared the winner. Boreas was the one to try his luck first; but no matter how hard he blew, he couldn't remove the man's cloak, instead making him wrap his cloak around him even tighter. Helios shone bright then, and the traveller, overcome with the heat, removed his cloak, giving him the victory. The moral is that persuasion is better than force.
Role in the Gigantomachy
It was said by Apollodorus that during the battle of the giants against the gods, the giant Alcyoneus stole Helios’ cattle from Erytheia, or alternatively, that it was Alcyoneus’ very theft of the cattle that started the war. Because Gaia learned of the prophecy that the giants would perish at the hand of a mortal, Gaia sought to find a herb that would protect them; thus Zeus ordered Helios, as well as his sisters Selene (Moon) and Eos (Dawn) not to shine, and harvested all of the plant for himself. At some point during the battle of gods and giants in Phlegra, where the battle took place, Helios took up an exhausted from the fight Hephaestus on his chariot. One of the giants, Picolous, fled the battle against Zeus; he went to Aeaea, the island where Helios’ daughter Circe lived. He attempted to chase Circe away, only to be killed by Helios, who defended his daughter. From the blood of the giant a plant was sprang, moly, named thus from the battle (malos). The flower had a black root, for the colour of the blood of the slain Giant, and a white flower, either for the white Sun that killed him, or the fact that Circe grew pale of terror. This is the very same plant Odysseus would later use to save his companions from Circe's magic.
By the Oceanid Perse, Helios became the father of Aeetes, Circe, Perses, and Pasiphae. As father of Aeetes, Helios was also the grandfather of Medea and would play a significant role in Euripides’ rendition of her fate in Corinth. When Medea offers Glauce the poisoned robes and diadem, she says they were gifts from Helios. Later, after Medea has caused the deaths of Glauce and Glauce's father Creon, as well as her own children, Helios helps her escape Corinth and her impious husband Jason by offering her a chariot pulled by dragons. Apollodorus seems to follow this version as well.
After Orion was blinded by King Oenopion for attacking his daughter Merope, he was given a guide, Cedalion, from the god Hephaestus to guide him. Orion with Cedalion on his shoulders travelled to the east, where he met Helios. Helios then healed Orion's eyes, restoring his eyesight.
Phineus's blinding, as reported in the Argonautica, was Zeus' punishment for Phineus revealing the future to mankind. For this reason he was also tormented by the Harpies, who stole or defiled whatever food he had at hand. According, however, to one of the alternative versions, it was Helios who had deprived Phineus of his sight; Phineus, when asked by Zeus if he preferred to die or lose sight as punishment for having his sons killed by their stepmother, Phineus chose the latter, saying he would rather never see the Sun than die, and consequently the offended Helios blinded him and sent the Harpies against him. Oppian wrote that Helios' wrath was due to some obscure victory of the prophet.
Aelian wrote that Nerites was the son of the sea god Nereus and the Oceanid Doris. In the version where Nerites became the lover of Poseidon, it is said that Helios turned him into a shellfish, for reasons unknown to Aelian's sources, who theorized that perhaps Helios was somehow offended.
The Huntress Arge
Arge was a huntress who, while hunting down a particularly fast stag, claimed that fast as the Sun as it was, she would eventually catch up to it. Helios, offended by the girl's words, turned her into a doe.
When the brothers Thyestes and Atreus fought over which would get to rule Mycenae, following the death of the previous king, Eurystheus, Atreus suggested that whoever prossessed of a splendid golden ram would be declared king. Unbeknownst to Atreus, his unfaithful wife Aerope had given Thyestes the ram, and thus Thyestes became king. Zeus sent Hermes to Atreus, telling Atreus to get Thyestes to agree that should the Sun rise in the west and set in the east, the kingship would be given to Atreus. Thyestes agreed, and Helios indeed rose where he usually set, and set where he usually rose, not standing the unfairness of Thyestes’ actions. According to Plato, Helios at first used to rise in the west and set in the east, and only changed that after the incident of the golden ram.
During Odysseus’ journey to get back home, he arrived at the island of Circe, who warned him not to touch Helios’ sacred cows once he reached Thrinacia, the sun god's sacred island, where the cattle was kept:
You will now come to the Thrinacian island, and here you will see many herds of cattle and flocks of sheep belonging to the sun-god. There will be seven herds of cattle and seven flocks of sheep, with fifty heads in each flock. They do not breed, nor do they become fewer in number, and they are tended by the goddesses Phaethusa and Lampetia, who are children of the sun-god Hyperion by Neaera. Their mother when she had borne them and had done suckling them sent them to the Thrinacian island, which was a long way off, to live there and look after their father's flocks and herds. If you leave these flocks unharmed, and think of nothing but homecoming [nostos], you may yet after much hardship reach Ithaca; but if you harm them, then I forewarn you of the destruction both of your ship and of your comrades; and even though you may yourself escape, you will return late, in bad plight, after losing all your men.
Though Odysseus warns his men, when supplies run short they impiously kill and eat some of the cattle of the Sun. The guardians of the island, Helios' daughters, tell their father about this. Helios then appeals to Zeus telling him to dispose of Odysseus’ men, or he will go in the Undeworld and shine among the dead instead. Zeus promises Helios that he will deal with it, and destroys the ship with his lightning bolt, killing all the men except for Odysseus.
Consorts and children
Traditionally the Oceanid Perse was seen as the sun god's wife by whom he had (depending on version) Circe, Aeetes, Pasiphae, Perses and Aloeus, though he is also stated to have married other women instead like Rhodos in the Rhodian tradition by whom he had seven sons, the Heliadae, and even Clymene the mother of Phaethon and the Heliades, though their relationship is usually a liaison in other sources.
Horses of Helios
Some lists, cited by Hyginus, of the names of horses that pulled Helios' chariot, are as follows. Scholarship acknowledges that, despite differences between the lists, the names of the horses always seem to refer to fire, flame, light and other luminous qualities.
- According to Homer – late 8th/ early 7th century BC: Abraxas, *Therbeeo.
- According to Eumelus of Corinth – late 7th/ early 6th century BC: The male trace horses are Eous (by him the sky is turned) and Aethiops (as if flaming, parches the grain) and the female yoke-bearers are Bronte ("Thunder") and Sterope ("Lightning").
- According to Ovid — Roman, 1st century BC Phaethon's ride: Pyrois ("the fiery one"), Eous ("he who turns the sky"), Aethon ("blazing"), and Phlegon ("burning").
Alexander of Aetolia, cited in Athenaeus, related that the magical herb grew on the island Thrinacia, which was sacred to Helios, and served as a remedy against fatigue for the sun god's horses. Aeschrion of Samos informed that it was known as the "dog's-tooth" and was believed to have been sown by Cronus.
- Pande, Govind Chandra (2007). A golden chain of civilizations : Indic, Iranic, Semitic, and Hellenic up to c. 600 B.C. (1 publ. ed.). New Delhi: Project of History of Indian Science, philosophy, and Culture. p. 572. ISBN 978-8187586289. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- R.S.P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 516.
- helios. Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Euripides, Robert E. Meagher, Helen, Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1986
- O'Brien, Steven. "Dioscuric Elements in Celtic and Germanic Mythology". Journal of Indo-European Studies 10:1 & 2 (Spring–Summer, 1982), 117–136.
- Skutsch, Otto. "Helen, her Name and Nature". Journal of Hellenic Studies 107 (1987), 188–193.
- Hesiod, Theogony 371
- Apollodorus, Library 1.2.2
- Scholia on Pindar, Isthmian Odes 5.2
- Homeric Hymns 31.5
- Hyginus, Fabulae preface
- Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.40
- Homeric Hymns 31.14-15
- Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.71
- Pachoumi, Eleni. 2015. "The Religious and Philosophical Assimilations of Helios in the Greek Magical Papyri." Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 55: 391–413.
- Gelling, P. and Davidson, H.E. The Chariot of the Sun and Other Rites and Symbols of the Northern Bronze Age. London, 1969.
- Burkert, W. Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. Cambridge Mass., 1985, p. 175.
- Wright, Wilmer Cave. 1913. The works of Emperor Julian, volume 1.
- Homer, Odyssey Book 12
- Farnell, L.R. (1909) The Cults of the Greek States (New York/London: Oxford University Press) vol. v, p 419f.
- J. Burnet, Plato: Euthyphro, Apology of Socrates, and Crito (New York/London: Oxford University Press) 1924, p. 111.
- James A. Noutopolos, "Socrates and the Sun" The Classical Journal 37.5 (February 1942), pp. 260–274.
- Notopoulos 1942:265.
- Burkert, p. 174
- Suda, alpha, 1155
- Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 13.12
- Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.1.6
- Larson, Jennifer. "A Land Full of Gods: Nature Deities in Greek Religion". In Ogden, Daniel. A Companion to Greek Religion. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 56–70.
- Notopoulos 1942 instances Aeschylus' Agamemnon 508, Choephoroe 993, Suppliants 213, and Sophocles' Oedipus Rex 660 and 1425.
- Anaxagoras biography
- Euripides, Robert E. Meagher, Helen, Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1986
- Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 120.
- Homer, William Cullen Bryant (1809). The Iliad of Homer. Ashmead.
- G. Lancellotti, Attis, Between Myth and History: King, Priest, and God, BRILL, 2002
- O'Rourke Boyle Marjorie (1991). Petrarch's genius: pentimento and prophecy. University of California press. ISBN 978-0-520-07293-0.
- Wilhelm Fauth, Helios Megistos: zur synkretistischen Theologie der Spätantike (Leiden:Brill) 1995.
- Webb, Matilda (2001). The Churches and Catacombs of Early Christian Rome. Sussex Academic Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-90221058-2.
- Kemp, Martin (2000). The Oxford History of Western Art. Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-19860012-1.
- Hijmans 2009, p. 567-578. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHijmans2009 (help)
- On the Mysteries of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and Assyrians 7.2, 251–252.
- (Myst. 5.23, 233)
- Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling, Etruscan Myths (Series The Legendary Past, British Museum/University of Texas) 2006:77.
- Noted by Beazley, J.D. (1949). "The world of the Etruscan mirror". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 69: 1–17, esp. p. 3, fig. 1. doi:10.2307/629458. JSTOR 629458.
- de Grummond, Nancy Thomson; Simon, Erika (2009-04-20). The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press.
- Sick, David H. (2004) "Mit(h)ra(s) and the myths of the Sun", Numen, 51 (4): 432–467, JSTOR 3270454
- Bortolani, Ljuba Merlina (2016-10-13) Magical Hymns from Roman Egypt: A study of Greek and Egyptian traditions of divinity, Cambridge University Press.
- Hymn to King Helios
- "epiphanestaton" – “most conspicuous” noted in Diodorus Siculus II. 30. 3–4. See also Franz Boll (1919) Kronos-Helios, Archiv für Religionswissenschaft XIX, p. 344.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Helios
- Aeschylus, Heliades
- Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 11.38
- Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.13.1
- Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 11.39
- Glover, Eric. “The eclipse of Xerxes in Herodotus 7.37: Lux a non obscurando.” The Classical Quarterly, vol. 64, no. 2, 2014, pp. 471–492. New Series, www.jstor.org/stable/43905590. Accessed 12 Sept. 2021.
- Ian Rutherford, Pindar's Paeans: A reading of the fragments with a survey of the genre.
- Plutarch, On the Apparent Face in the Orb of the Moon.
- Pindar, Olympian Odes 7
- Scholia on Pindar's Olympian Odes 7.25
- Apollodorus, Library 1.4.5
- Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5.56.3
- Homeric Hymns 28.13
- Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.39
- Ovid, Metamorphoses
- Euripides, Phaethon
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca
- Hyginus, Fabulae 152A
- Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 6. 131
- John Tzetzes, Chiliades 4.127
- Hyginus, Fabulae 154
- Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.747-2.400
- Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.42.2
- Aesop, Fables 436
- Homeric Hymns 2.75
- Ovid, Fasti 4.575
- Homer, Odyssey 8. 266-295
- Homer, Odyssey 8. 296-332
- Lucian, Gallus 3, see also scholiast on Aristophanes, Birds 835; Eustathius, Ad Odysseam 1.300; Ausonius, 26.2.27; Libanius, Progymnasmata 2.26.
- Seneca, Phaedra 124
- Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.167-273
- Hard, p. 45
- Gantz, p. 34
- Apollodorus, Library 2.4.8; Seneca, Hercules Furens 24; Argonautica Orphica 113; see also Lucian's satirical Dialogues of the Gods 10: Hermes and Helios which presents Helios as reluctant to follow the order, reasoning that humans shouldn't be deprived of sunlight for three whole days due to Zeus desiring some mortal woman while he is married.
- Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.5.10
- Noted in Kerenyi 1951:191, note 595.
- Fowler 1988, p. 98 n. 5; Pausanias, 2.1.6, 2.4.6.
- Aesop, Fables 183
- Apollodorus, Library 1.6.1
- Scholia on Pindar, Isthmian Odes 6.47b
- Gantz, pp. 419, 448–449
- Apollodorus, Library 1.6.1
- Aeschylus, Eumenides 294; Euripides, Heracles 1192–1194; Ion 987–997; Aristophanes, The Birds 824; Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 3.232–234 (pp. 210–211), 3.1225–7 (pp. 276–277). See also Hesiod fragment 43a.65 MW (Most 2007, p. 143, Gantz, p. 446)
- Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 3.221
- Eustathius, Ad Odysseam 10.305 "Alexander of Paphos reports the following tale: Picoloos, one of the Giants, by fleeing from the war led against Zeus, reached Circe's island and tried to chase her away. Her father Helios killed him, protecting his daughter with his shield;"
- Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 4 "The plant “moly” of which Homer speaks; this plant had, it is said, grown from the blood of the giant killed in the isle of Circe; it has a white flower; the ally of Circe who killed the giant was Helios; the combat was hard (mâlos) from which the name of this plant."
- Rahner, Hugo. Greek Myths and Christian Mystery New York. Biblo & Tannen Publishers. 1971. pg. 204
- Euripides, Medea 956
- Euripides, Medea 1322
- Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.9.28
- Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catasterismi
- Apollodorus, Library 1.4.3
- Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.34.3
- Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.178–86
- Scholia on Homer's Odyssey 12.69
- Pseudo-Oppian, Cynegetica 2.615
- Aelian, On Animals 14.28
- Hyginus, Fabulae 205
- Apollodorus, Epitome 2.11
- Apollodorus, Epitome 2.12
- John Tzetzes, Chiliades 1.18
- Plato, The Statesman 268e and 269a
- Homer, Odyssey 12.127–137.
- Homer, Odyssey 12.352-388
- Apollodorus, Epitome 7.22
- Hecataeus of Miletus, fr. 35A Fowler
- Hard, p. 44
- Fowler 2013, pp. 14, 591–592; Hard, pp. 43, 105; Grimal, p. 404 "Rhode", pp. 404–405 "Rhodus"; Smith, "Rhode" , "Rhodos"; Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.71–74; Diodorus Siculus, 5.55
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38.130
- Strabo, Geographica 10.3.19.
- Daughter of Poseidon and Aphrodite or Amphitrite.
- Expert seafarers and astrologers from Rhodes (Diodorus Siculus, Historic Library). 5.56.3 & Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14.44)
- Epimenides in scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.242
- Pausanias, Description of Greece 9.35.5 with a reference to Antimachus.
- Hesychius of Alexandria s. v. Αἴγλης Χάριτες
- Otherwise called daughters of Eurynome with Zeus (Hesiod Theogony 907) or of Aphrodite with Dionysus (Anacreontea fragment 38).
- Diophantus in scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.242
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.60.4
- Tzetzes, Chiliades 4.361
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Bisaltia
- Mostly represented as poplars mourning Phaethon's death beside the river Eridanus, weeping tears of amber in Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.340 & Hyginus, Fabulae 154
- Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10.337
- More commonly known as daughters of Zeus by Themis.
- Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.172
- Daughter of Amphidamas of Elis in Hyginus, Fabulae 14.3 & Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.172
- Hyginus, Fabulae 14.4. Either this Leucothoe or another is the mother of Thersanon according to Hyginus.
- Possible mother to Alcyone by Aeolus.
- The son who borrowed the chariot of Helios, but lost control and plunged into the river Eridanus.
- Hesiod, Theogony 956; Hyginus, Fabulae 27; Diodorus Siculus, Historic Library 4.45.1; Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.9.1 and Tzetzes ad Lycophron, Alexandra 174
- In Suidas "Aithon", he chopped Demeter's sacred grove and was forever famished for that (compare the myth of Erysichthon).
- In Nonnus Dionysiaca 17.269, wife of the river-god Hydaspes in India, mother of Deriades.
- In Hyginus De Astronomica 2.13, a nymph with a beautiful body and a horrible face.
- In Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.1.1, ruler over Asopia.
- Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Odes 6.131
- In Hyginus, Fabulae 275, founder of Camirus, a city in Rhodes.
- John Tzetzes, Chiliades 4.363
- Lycophron, Alexandra 128
- Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers 25
- Hesychius of Alexandria s. v. Νέαιρα
- Argonautica Orphica 1217
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Ambrakia
- Guardians of the cattle of Thrinacia (Homer, Odyssey 12.128).
- In Ovid's Metamorphoses 2.340, these two are listed among the children of Clymene.
- John Tzetzes on Lycophron, 886
- Scholia on Pindar, Pythian Odes 4.57, in which she is also described as "sister to Pasiphae", perhaps implying they also share a mother as well, either Perse or Crete.
- Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers 5.1
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 26.351, Nonnus calls her a Naiad, but says that her father is Oceanus.
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 26.351, contradicting his previous statement that has Clymene as Astris' mother.
- Mesomedes, Hymn to the Sun 1. Eos is usually said to be his sister instead.
- Hyginus, Fabulae 14.4. Either this Leucothoe or another is the mother of Thersanon according to Hyginus.
- Euripides, The Phoenician Women 175 ff.; Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44.191. Just like her sister Eos, she's more commonly said to be Helios' sister rather than his daughter.
- Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers 3.3
- Slim, Hédi. "La chute de Phaeton sur une mosaïque de Barrarus-Rougga en Tunisie". In: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 147ᵉ année, N. 3, 2003. p. 1121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/crai.2003.22628; www.persee.fr/doc/crai_0065-0536_2003_num_147_3_22628
- Hyginus, Fabulae 183
- Dain, Philippe. Mythographe du Vatican III. Traduction et commentaire. Besançon: Institut des Sciences et Techniques de l'Antiquité, 2005. p. 156 (footnote nr. 33) (Collection « ISTA », 854). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ista.2005.2854; www.persee.fr/doc/ista_0000-0000_2005_edc_854_1
- Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner 7.294C
- Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Homer; The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Evelyn-White, Hugh, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Homeric Hymns. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914.
- Pindar, Odes, Diane Arnson Svarlien. 1990. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica; with an English translation by R. C. Seaton. William Heinemann, 1912.
- Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Ovid. Metamorphoses, Volume I: Books 1-8. Translated by Frank Justus Miller. Revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library No. 42. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1977, first published 1916. ISBN 978-0-674-99046-3. Online version at Harvard University Press.
- Ovid, Ovid's Fasti: With an English translation by Sir James George Frazer, London: W. Heinemann LTD; Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1959. Internet Archive.
- Hyginus, Gaius Julius, The Myths of Hyginus. Edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1960.
- Gaius Julius Hyginus, Astronomica from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
- Pausanias, Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica. Vol 1-2. Immanel Bekker. Ludwig Dindorf. Friedrich Vogel. in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. Leipzig. 1888–1890. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Aelian, On Animals, Volume III: Books 12-17, translated by A. F. Scholfield, Loeb Classical Library No. 449, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1959. Online version at Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-99494-2.
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca; translated by Rouse, W H D, III Books XXXVI–XLVIII. Loeb Classical Library No. 346, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1940. Internet Archive.
- Seneca, Tragedies, translated by Miller, Frank Justus. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1917.
- Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods; translated by Fowler, H W and F G. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 1905.
- Lucian, Gallus 3 (170 CE)
- Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
- Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873)."Helios"
- Burkert, Walter (1982). Greek Religion.
- Kerenyi, Karl (1951). "Apollo: The Wind, the Spirit, and the God: Four Studies". The Gods of the Greeks.
- Kerenyi, Karl (1951). "The Sun, the Moon and their Family". The Gods of the Greeks. pp. 190–194. et passim.
- Schauenburg, Konrad (1955). Helios: Archäologisch-mythologische Studien über den antiken. Mann.
- Weitzmann, Kurt, ed., Age of spirituality : late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, no. 59, 1979, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 978-0-87099-179-0; full text available online from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries.
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