Hepburn romanization

system of transcribing Japanese sounds into the Latin alphabet

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Hepburn romanization (Japanese: ヘボン式ローマ字, Hepburn: Hebon-shiki rōmaji)[a] is the most widely-used system of romanization for the Japanese language. It was first published in 1886 by American missionary James Curtis Hepburn, and uses English orthography to phonetically transcribe Japanese sounds into Latin script.[1] The "modified Hepburn system", also known as the "standard system", was published in 1908 with revisions upon Hepburn's original dictionary.[2]

Although Kunrei-shiki romanization is the style favored by the Japanese government, Hepburn remains the most popular method of Japanese romanization.[1] It is learned by most foreign students of Japanese,[3] and is used within Japan for romanizing personal names, locations, and other information such as train tables and road signs.[4] Because the system's orthography is based on English phonology instead of a systematic transcription of the Japanese syllabary, individuals who only speak English or a Romance language will be generally more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to other systems.[5][6]


In 1867, American missionary James Curtis Hepburn published the first modern Japanese–English dictionary.[7] In 1886, he published the dictionary's third edition, which popularized a version of his system with input from an international commission consisting of Japanese and foreign scientists. In 1908, the Society for the Propagation of Romanization (ローマ字ひろめ会, Rōmaji Hirome-kai), led by educator Kanō Jigorō, published a version of the Hepburn system with revisions, which is known today as the "modified Hepburn" (修正ヘボン式, shūsei Hebon-shiki) or "standard system" (標準式, Hyōjun-shiki).[8][2]

Legal status

Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, which was developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script.[5] In 1930 a Special Romanization Study Commission was appointed to compare the two.[5] The Commission eventually decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, which was proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937, cabinet ordinance; it is now known as the Kunrei-shiki romanization. The ordinance was temporarily overturned by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) during the Occupation of Japan, but it was reissued with slight revisions in 1954.

In 1972 a revised version of Hepburn was codified as ANSI standard Z39.11-1972. It was proposed in 1989 as a draft for ISO 3602 but rejected in favor of the Kunrei-shiki romanization. The ANSI Z39.11-1972 standard was deprecated on October 6, 1994.

As of 1978 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. In addition The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, and many other private organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. The National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki.[9]

Nippon-shiki was followed by Kunrei-shiki, which was adopted in 1937, has still basic legal status as mentioned above. For example, place names follow this romanization. Geospatial Information Authority of Japan adopts it.[10] Although Hepburn is not a government standard, some government agencies mandate it. For example, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs requires the use of Hepburn on passports, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport requires the use of Hepburn on transport signs, including road signs and railway station signs.

In many other areas that it lacks de jure status, Hepburn remains the de facto standard. Signs and notices in city offices and police stations and at shrines, temples and attractions also use it. English-language newspapers and media use the simplified form of Hepburn. Cities and prefectures use it in information for English-speaking residents and visitors, and English-language publications by the Japanese Foreign Ministry use simplified Hepburn as well. Official tourism information put out by the government uses it, as do guidebooks, both local and foreign, on Japan.


Former Japan National Railways-style board of Toyooka Station. Between the two adjacent stations, "GEMBUDŌ" follows the Hepburn romanization system, but "KOKUHU" follows the Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki romanization system.

There are many variants of the Hepburn romanization. The two most common styles are as follows:

  • Traditional Hepburn, as defined in various editions of Hepburn's dictionary, with the third edition (1886)[11] often considered authoritative[12] (although changes in kana usage must be accounted for). It is characterized by the rendering of syllabic n as m before the consonants b, m and p: Shimbashi for 新橋.
  • Modified Hepburn (修正ヘボン式, Shūsei Hebon-shiki),[13] also known as Revised Hepburn, in which (among other points) the rendering of syllabic n as m before certain consonants is no longer used: Shinbashi for 新橋. The style was introduced in the third edition of Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (1954), was adopted by the Library of Congress as one of its ALA-LC romanizations, and is the most common version of the system today.[14]

In Japan itself, there are some variants officially mandated for various uses:

  • Railway Standard (鉄道掲示基準規程, Tetsudō Keiji Kijun Kitei),[15] which mostly follows the Hyōjun-shiki Rōmaji, however syllabic n is rendered as m before b, m and p. Japan Railways and other major railways use it for station names.
  • Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Standard,[16] how to spell Roman letters (Hepburn style) of road signs, which follows the modified Hepburn style. It is used for road signs.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs Passport Standard (外務省旅券規定, Gaimushō Ryoken Kitei),[17] a permissive standard, which explicitly allows the use of "non-Hepburn romaji" (非ヘボン式ローマ字, hi-Hebon-shiki rōmaji) in personal names, notably for passports. In particular, it renders the syllabic n as m before b, m and p, and romanizes long o as oh, oo or ou (Satoh, Satoo or Satou for 佐藤).

Details of the variants can be found below.

Obsolete variants

The romanizations set out in the first and second versions of Hepburn's dictionary are primarily of historical interest. Notable differences from the third and later versions include:

Second version
  • and were written as ye: Yedo
  • and were written as dzu: kudzu, tsudzuku
  • キャ, キョ, and キュ were written as kiya, kiyo and kiu
  • クヮ was written as kuwa[18]
First version

The following differences are in addition to those in the second version:

  • was written as sz.
  • was written as tsz.
  • and were written as du.


The main feature of Hepburn is that its orthography is based on English phonology. More technically, when syllables that are constructed systematically according to the Japanese syllabary contain an "unstable" consonant in the modern spoken language, the orthography is changed to something that better matches the real sound as an English-speaker would pronounce it. For example, is written shi not si.

Some linguists such as Harold E. Palmer, Daniel Jones and Otto Jespersen object to Hepburn since the pronunciation-based spellings can obscure the systematic origins of Japanese phonetic structures, inflections, and conjugations.[19] Supporters of Hepburn argue that it is not intended as a linguistic tool.

Long vowels

In modified Hepburn, adjacent vowels that form a long sound are conventionally indicated with macrons ( ¯ ). Other adjacent vowels, such as those separated by a morpheme boundary, are written separately:

in traditional Hepburn[20] in modified Hepburn[21]
A + A if part of the same morpheme, written aa:
お婆さん ( + ばあ + さん) – obaa-san 'grandmother'
if part of the same morpheme, written ā:
お婆さん ( + ばあ + さん) – obā-san 'grandmother'
if part of separate morphemes, written aa: 邪悪 (じゃ + あく) – {ja} + {aku} – jaaku 'evil'
I + I if part of the same morpheme, written ii:
美味しい ( + + しい) – oishii 'delicious'
if part of the same morpheme, written ii:
新潟 (にい + がた) Niigata
if part of separate morphemes, written ii: 灰色 (はい + いろ) – {hai} + {iro} – haiiro 'grey'
U + U if part of the same morpheme, written ū:
数学 (すう + がく) – sūgaku 'mathematics'
if part of the same morpheme, written ū:
注意 (ちゅう + ) – chūi 'attention'
if part of separate morphemes, written uu: (みず + うみ) – {mizu} + {umi} – mizuumi 'lake'
same applies if part of the ending of a terminal verb: 食う (くう) – {ku} + {u} – kuu 'to eat'
E + E if part of the same morpheme, written ee:
お姉さん ( + ねえ + さん) – onee-san 'older sister'
if part of the same morpheme, written ē:
お姉さん ( + ねえ + さん) – onē-san 'older sister'
if part of separate morphemes, written ee: 濡れ縁 (ぬれ + えん) – {nure} + {en} = nureen 'open veranda'
O + O if part of the same morpheme, written ō:
大阪 (おお + さか)Ōsaka
if part of the same morpheme, written ō:
遠回り (とお + まわ + ) – tōmawari 'detour'
if part of separate morphemes, written oo: 小躍り ( + おど + ) – {ko} + {odo} + {ri} – koodori 'dance'
O + U if part of the same morpheme, written ō:
勉強 (べん + きょう) – {ben} + {kyou} – benkyō 'study'
if part of the same morpheme, written ō:
東京 (とう + きょう) – {tou} + {kyou} – Tōkyō
if part of separate morphemes, written ou: 仔牛 ( + うし) – {ko} + {ushi} – koushi 'calf'
same applies if part of the ending of a terminal verb: 迷う (まよ + う) – {mayo} + {u} – mayou 'to get lost'

All other vowel combinations are written separately:

  • E + I: 制服seifuku 'uniform'; 経験keiken 'experience'
  • U + I: 軽いkarui 'lightweight'; uguisu 'bush warbler'
  • O + I: oi 'nephew'

In foreign loanwords, only vowels followed by a chōonpu (ー) are indicated with macrons:

  • セーラー: se + (chōonpu) + ra + (chōonpu) = sērā – sailor
  • パーティー: pa + (chōonpu) + ti + (chōonpu) = pātī – party
  • ヒーター: hi + (chōonpu) + ta + (chōonpu) = hītā – heater
  • タクシー: ta + ku + shi + (chōonpu) = takushī – taxi
  • スーパーマン: su + (chōonpu) + pa + (chōonpu) + ma + n = Sūpāman – Superman
  • バレーボール: ba + re + (chōonpu) + bo + (chōonpu) + ru = barēbōru – volleyball
  • ソール: so + (chōonpu) + ru = sōru – sole

Adjacent vowels in loanwords are written separately:

  • バレエ: ba + re + e = baree – ballet
  • ミイラ: mi + i + ra = miira – mummy
  • ソウル: so + u + ru = souru – soul, Seoul

There are many variations on the conventional system for indicating long vowels with a macron. For example, 東京 (とうきょう) is written as Tōkyō in Hepburn, but can also be written as:

  • Tokyo – not indicated at all. Common for Japanese words that have been adopted into English, and the de facto convention for Hepburn used in signs and other English-language information around Japan.
  • Tôkyô – indicated with circumflex accents, like the alternative Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanizations. They are often used when macrons are unavailable or difficult to input, due to their visual similarity.[22][23]
  • Tohkyoh – indicated with an h (only applies after o). This is sometimes known as "passport Hepburn", as the Japanese Foreign Ministry has authorized (but not required) it in passports.[24][25][26]
  • Toukyou – written using kana spelling: ō as ou or oo (depending on the kana) and ū as uu. That is sometimes called wāpuro style, as it is how text is entered into a Japanese word processor by using a keyboard with Roman characters. The method most accurately represents the way that vowels are written in kana by differentiating between おう (as in とうきょう(東京), written Toukyou in this system) and おお (as in とおい(遠い), written tooi in this system).
    • However, using this method makes the pronunciation of ou become ambiguous, either a long o or two different vowels: o and u. See Wāpuro rōmaji#Phonetic accuracy for details.
  • Tookyoo – written by doubling the long vowels. Some dictionaries such as Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese dictionary[27] and Basic English writers' Japanese-English wordbook follow this style, and it is also used in the JSL form of romanization. It is also used to write words without reference to any particular system.[28]


In traditional and modified:

  • When is used as a particle, it is written wa.

In traditional Hepburn:

  • When is used as a particle, Hepburn originally recommended ye.[20] This spelling is obsolete, and it is commonly written as e (Romaji-Hirome-Kai, 1974[29]).
  • When is used as a particle, it is written wo.[20]

In modified Hepburn:[21]

  • When is used as a particle, it is written e.
  • When is used as a particle, it is written o.

Syllabic n

In traditional Hepburn:[20]

Syllabic n () is written as n before consonants, but as m before labial consonants: b, m, and p. It is sometimes written as n- (with a hyphen) before vowels and y (to avoid confusion between, for example, んあ n + a and na, and んや n + ya and にゃ nya), but its hyphen usage is not clear.
  • 案内(あんない): annai – guide
  • 群馬(ぐんま): GummaGunma
  • 簡易(かんい): kan-i – simple
  • 信用(しんよう): shin-yō – trust

In modified Hepburn:[21]

The rendering m before labial consonants is not used and is replaced with n. It is written n' (with an apostrophe) before vowels and y.
  • 案内(あんない): annai – guide
  • 群馬(ぐんま): Gunma – Gunma
  • 簡易(かんい): kan'i – simple
  • 信用(しんよう): shin'yō – trust

Long consonants

Elongated (or "geminate") consonant sounds are marked by doubling the consonant following a sokuon, ; for consonants that are digraphs in Hepburn (sh, ch, ts), only the first consonant of the set is doubled, except for ch, which is replaced by tch.[20][21]

  • 結果(けっか): kekka – result
  • さっさと: sassato – quickly
  • ずっと: zutto – all the time
  • 切符(きっぷ): kippu – ticket
  • 雑誌(ざっし): zasshi – magazine
  • 一緒(いっしょ): issho – together
  • こっち: kotchi (not kocchi) – this way
  • 抹茶(まっちゃ): matcha (not maccha) – matcha
  • 三つ(みっつ): mittsu – three

Romanization charts

Gojūon Yōon
あ ア a い イ i う ウ u え エ e お オ o
か カ ka き キ ki く ク ku け ケ ke こ コ ko きゃ キャ kya きゅ キュ kyu きょ キョ kyo
さ サ sa し シ shi す ス su せ セ se そ ソ so しゃ シャ sha しゅ シュ shu しょ ショ sho
た タ ta ち チ chi つ ツ tsu て テ te と ト to ちゃ チャ cha ちゅ チュ chu ちょ チョ cho
な ナ na に ニ ni ぬ ヌ nu ね ネ ne の ノ no にゃ ニャ nya にゅ ニュ nyu にょ ニョ nyo
は ハ ha ひ ヒ hi ふ フ fu へ ヘ he ほ ホ ho ひゃ ヒャ hya ひゅ ヒュ hyu ひょ ヒョ hyo
ま マ ma み ミ mi む ム mu め メ me も モ mo みゃ ミャ mya みゅ ミュ myu みょ ミョ myo
や ヤ ya ゆ ユ yu よ ヨ yo
ら ラ ra り リ ri る ル ru れ レ re ろ ロ ro りゃ リャ rya りゅ リュ ryu りょ リョ ryo
わ ワ wa ゐ ヰ i † ゑ ヱ e † を ヲ o ‡
ん ン n /n'
が ガ ga ぎ ギ gi ぐ グ gu げ ゲ ge ご ゴ go ぎゃ ギャ gya ぎゅ ギュ gyu ぎょ ギョ gyo
ざ ザ za じ ジ ji ず ズ zu ぜ ゼ ze ぞ ゾ zo じゃ ジャ ja じゅ ジュ ju じょ ジョ jo
だ ダ da ぢ ヂ ji づ ヅ zu で デ de ど ド do ぢゃ ヂャ ja ぢゅ ヂュ ju ぢょ ヂョ jo
ば バ ba び ビ bi ぶ ブ bu べ ベ be ぼ ボ bo びゃ ビャ bya びゅ ビュ byu びょ ビョ byo
ぱ パ pa ぴ ピ pi ぷ プ pu ぺ ペ pe ぽ ポ po ぴゃ ピャ pya ぴゅ ピュ pyu ぴょ ピョ pyo
  • Each entry contains hiragana, katakana, and Hepburn romanization, in that order.
  • † — The characters in red are rare historical characters and are obsolete in modern Japanese.[30][31] In modern Hepburn romanization, they are often undefined.[21]
  • ‡ — The characters in blue are rarely used outside of their status as a particle in modern Japanese,[22] and romanization follows the rules above.

Extended katakana

These combinations are used mainly to represent the sounds in words in other languages.

Digraphs with orange backgrounds are the general ones used for loanwords or foreign places or names, and those with blue backgrounds are used for more accurate transliterations of foreign sounds, both suggested by the Cabinet of Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.[32] Katakana combinations with beige backgrounds are suggested by the American National Standards Institute[33] and the British Standards Institution as possible uses.[34] Ones with purple backgrounds appear on the 1974 version of the Hyōjun-shiki formatting.[29]

イィ yi イェ ye
ウァ wa* ウィ wi ウゥ wu* ウェ we ウォ wo
ウュ wyu
ヴァ va ヴィ vi vu ヴェ ve ヴォ vo
ヴャ vya ヴュ vyu ヴィェ vye ヴョ vyo
キェ kye
ギェ gye
クァ kwa クィ kwi クェ kwe クォ kwo
クヮ kwa
グァ gwa グィ gwi グェ gwe グォ gwo
グヮ gwa
シェ she
ジェ je
スィ si
ズィ zi
チェ che
ツァ tsa ツィ tsi ツェ tse ツォ tso
ツュ tsyu
ティ ti トゥ tu
テュ tyu
ディ di ドゥ du
デュ dyu
ニェ nye
ヒェ hye
ビェ bye
ピェ pye
ファ fa フィ fi フェ fe フォ fo
フャ fya フュ fyu フィェ fye フョ fyo
ホゥ hu
ミェ mye
リェ rye
ラ゜ la リ゜ li ル゜ lu レ゜ le ロ゜ lo
リ゜ャ lya リ゜ュ lyu リ゜ェ lye リ゜ョ lyo
va vi ve vo
  • * — The use of in these two cases to represent w is rare in modern Japanese except for Internet slang and transcription of the Latin sound [w] into katakana. E.g.: ミネルウァ (Mineruwa "Minerva", from Latin MINERVA [mɪˈnɛrwa]); ウゥルカーヌス (Wurukānusu "Vulcan", from Latin VVLCANVS, Vulcānus [lˈkaːnʊs]). The wa-type of foreign sounds (as in watt or white) is usually transcribed to ワ (wa), while the wu-type (as in wood or woman) is usually to ウ (u) or ウー (ū).
  • ⁑ — has a rarely-used hiragana form in that is also vu in Hepburn romanization systems.
  • ⁂ — The characters in green are obsolete in modern Japanese and very rarely used.[30][31]

See also


  1. ^ lit. "Hepburn-style Roman letters"
  1. ^ a b Hadamitzky, Wolfgang; Spahn, Mark (October 2005). "Romanization systems". Wolfgang Hadamitzky: Japan-related Textbooks, Dictionaries, and Reference Works. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  2. ^ a b Unger, J. Marshall (1996). Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading between the Lines. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN 9780195356380.
  3. ^ Backhaus, Peter (29 December 2014). "To shine or to die: the messy world of romanized Japanese". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  4. ^ "'Ti' or 'chi'? Educators call to unify romanization styles in Japan". Mainichi Daily News. 2 April 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Carr, Denzel. The New Official Romanization of Japanese. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 59, No. 1 (Mar., 1939), pp. 99-102.
  6. ^ Haruhiko Kindaichi, Takeshi Shibata, Naoki Hayashi (1988). 日本語百科大事典 [Japanese encyclopedia]. Taishukan Shoten.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Li, Yu (2019). The Chinese Writing System in Asia: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-69906-7. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  8. ^ Seeley, Christopher (2000). A History of Writing in Japan (Illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780824822170.
  9. ^ Kent, et al. "Oriental Literature and Bibliography." p. 155.
  10. ^ "Romanization of Geographical Names in Japan" (PDF).
  11. ^ 和英語林集成第三版 [Digital 'Japanese English Forest Collection']. Meiji Gakuin University Library (in Japanese). Meiji Gakuin University. March 2010 [2006]. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  12. ^ "明治学院大学図書館 - 『和英語林集成』デジタルアーカイブス". Meijigakuin.ac.jp. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  13. ^ "Japanese" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  14. ^ "UHM Library : Japan Collection Online Resources". Hawaii.edu. 2005-10-06. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  15. ^ "鉄道掲示基準規程". Homepage1.nifty.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  16. ^ 道路標識のローマ字(ヘボン式) の綴り方 [How to spell Roman letters (Hepburn style) of road signs]. Kictec (in Japanese). Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  17. ^ "パスポートセンター ヘボン式ローマ字表 : 神奈川県". Pref.kanagawa.jp. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  18. ^ James Curtis Hepburn (1872). A Japanese-English And English-Japanese Dictionary (2nd ed.). American Presbyterian mission press. pp. 286–290. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  19. ^ 松浦四郎 (October 1992). "104年かかった標準化". 標準化と品質菅理 -Standardization and Quality Control-. Japanese Standards Association. 45: 92–93.
  20. ^ a b c d e James Curtis Hepburn (1886). A Japanese-English And English-Japanese Dictionary (Third ed.). Z. P Maruyama & Co. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
  21. ^ a b c d e Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (Fourth ed.). Kenkyūsha. 1974.
  22. ^ a b Fujino Katsuji (1909). ローマ字手引き [RÔMAJI TEBIKI] (in Japanese). Rômaji-Hirome-kai.
  23. ^ Cabinet of Japan (December 9, 1954). 昭和29年内閣告示第1号 ローマ字のつづり方 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1954 - How to write Romanization] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Archived from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved 2011-05-19.
  24. ^ Bureau of Citizens and Culture Affairs of Tokyo. "PASSPORT_ヘボン式ローマ字綴方表" [Table of Spelling in Hepburn Romanization] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  25. ^ Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. ヘボン式ローマ字綴方表 [Table of Spelling in Hepburn Romanization] (PDF) (in Japanese). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  26. ^ Consulate-General of Japan in Detroit. "Example of Application Form for Passport" (PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  27. ^ Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary. "Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary (9780198607489): Shigeru Takebayashi, Kazuhiko Nagai: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  28. ^ "ローマ字の長音のつづり方". Xembho.s59.xrea.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  29. ^ a b "標準式ローマ字つづり―引用". Retrieved 2016-02-27.[self-published source]
  30. ^ a b Cabinet of Japan (November 16, 1946). 昭和21年内閣告示第33号 「現代かなづかい」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.33 in 1946 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on October 6, 2001. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  31. ^ a b Cabinet of Japan (July 1, 1986). 昭和61年内閣告示第1号 「現代仮名遣い」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1986 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  32. ^ Cabinet of Japan. "平成3年6月28日内閣告示第2号:外来語の表記" [Japanese cabinet order No.2 (June 28, 1991):The notation of loanword]. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Archived from the original on January 6, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  33. ^ "米国規格(ANSI Z39.11-1972)―要約". Retrieved 2016-02-27.[self-published source]
  34. ^ "英国規格(BS 4812 : 1972)―要約". Retrieved 2016-02-27.[self-published source]


  • Kent, Allen, Harold Lancour, and Jay Elwood Daily (Executive Editors). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science Volume 21. CRC Press, April 1, 1978. ISBN 0824720210, 9780824720216.

External links

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