Janata Dal

political party of India, active 1988–98

Encyclopedia from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Janata Dal
FounderV. P. Singh
Founded11 October 1988 (32 years ago) (1988-10-11)
Merger of
Succeeded by
National affiliation
Colours  Green

Janata Dal was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.[1][2]


V. P. Singh united the entire disparate spectrum of parties ranging from regional parties such as the Telugu Desam Party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, and the Asom Gana Parishad, together and formed the National Front with N. T. Rama Rao as President and V. P. Singh as convenor with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party and Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left front. They defeated Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) in the 1989 parliamentary elections.[3][4] His government fell after Lalu Prasad Yadav, got Advani arrested in Samastipur and stopped his Ram Rath Yatra which was going to Ayodhya on the site of the Babri Masjid on October 23, 1990 and the Bharatiya Janata Party withdrew support. V.P. Singh lost a parliamentary vote of confidence on November 7, 1990.[5] In the 1991 Indian general election the Janata Dal lost power but emerged as the third largest party in Lok Sabha.[6] Janata Dal-led United Front formed the government after the 1996 Indian general election with the outside support of the Indian National Congress. But after this the Janata Dal gradually disintegated into various smaller factions, largely regional parties Biju Janata Dal, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Secular) and Janata Dal (United).[7]

Ascent to power

It first came to power in 1989, after allegations of corruption, known as the Bofors scandal, caused Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) to lose the elections. The National Front coalition that was formed consisted of the Janata Dal and a few smaller parties in the government, and had outside support from the Left Front and the Bharatiya Janata Party. V. P. Singh was the Prime Minister. In November 1990, this coalition collapsed, and a new government headed by Chandra Shekhar under Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) which had the support of the Congress came to power for a short while. Two days before the vote, Chandra Shekhar, an ambitious Janata Dal rival who had been kept out of the National Front government, joined with Devi Lal, a former deputy prime minister under V.P. Singh, to form the Samajwadi Janata Party, with a total of just sixty Lok Sabha members. The day after the collapse of the National Front government, Chandra Shekhar informed the president that by gaining the backing of the Congress (I) and its electoral allies he enjoyed the support of 280 members of the Lok Sabha, and he demanded the right to constitute a new government. Even though his rump party accounted for only one-ninth of the members of the Lok Sabha, Chandra Shekhar succeeded in forming a new minority Government and becoming Prime Minister (with Devi Lal as Deputy Prime Minister). However, Chandra Shekhar's government fell less than four months later, after the Congress (I) withdrew its support.

Its second spell of power began in 1996, when the Janata Dal-led United Front coalition came to power, with outside support from the Congress under Sitaram Kesri, choosing H. D. Deve Gowda as their prime minister. The Congress withdrew their support in less than a year, hoping to gain power with the support of various United Front constituent groups, and I. K. Gujral became the next prime minister. His government too fell in a few months, and in February 1998, the Janata Dal-led coalition lost power to the Bharatiya Janata Party.

List of prime ministers

No. Prime Ministers Year Duration Constituency Image
1 Vishwanath Pratap Singh 1989-1990 343 days Fatehpur V. P. Singh (cropped).jpg
2 H. D. Deve Gowda 1996-97 324 days N/A (Rajya Sabha MP) from Karnataka Prime Minister H. D. Deve Gowda BNC.jpg
3 Inder Kumar Gujral 1997-1998 332 days N/A (Rajya Sabha MP) from Bihar Inder Kumar Gujral 071.jpg

Janata Dal factions

Pro-NDA parties

Pro-UPA parties

Non-NDA/UPA parties

Defunct parties

New merger initiatives

1. There is a move for the merger of Lok Aawaz Dal led by Shambhu Sharan Shrivastava, Socialist Janata Dal led by V. V. Rajendran, and Socialist Janata Party led by Attingal Premraj with Samta Party.

2. There is a move to unify eleven parties - Loktantrik Janata Dal led by Sharad Yadav, Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) led by Late Chandra Shekhar now led by Kamal Morarka, Loktantrik Samajwadi Party led by Raghu Thakur, Samajwadi Jan Parishad party of Late Kishen Pattanayak and now led by Adv. Kamal Banerjee, Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic led by Devendra Prasad Yadav, Odisha Jan Morcha led by Late Pyarimohan Mohapatra, Samata Kranti Dal led by Braja Kishore Tripathy, Rashtriya Samata Party (Secular), Socialist Party (India) led by Late. Bhai Vaidya and Dr. Prem Singh, Socialist Party (Lohia), and Akhil Bhartiya Socialist Party (ABSP) led by Harinarain Mishra.


  1. ^ N. Jose Chander (1 January 2004). Coalition Politics: The Indian Experience. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-81-8069-092-1. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  2. ^ India Since Independence: Making Sense of Indian Politics. Pearson Education India. 2010. pp. 334–. ISBN 978-81-317-2567-2. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  3. ^ "V. P. Singh, a Leader of India Who Defended Poor, Dies at 77". New York Times. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  4. ^ Indian Parliamentary Democracy. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. 2003. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-81-269-0193-7. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  5. ^ "India's Cabinet Falls as Premier Loses Confidence Vote, by 142-346, and Quits". New York Times. 8 November 1990. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  6. ^ "INDIA Parliamentary Chamber: Lok Sabha ELECTIONS HELD IN 1991". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  7. ^ "Lalu green signal for Janata Parivar unity". Madan Kumar. The Times of India. 5 April 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Samras Samaj Party merges into RLSP". News.webindia123.com. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  9. ^ "Nitish Kumar hails SJD's merger with JD-U in Kerala : South, News - India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 2014-12-29. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  10. ^ "SJD Merges with Sharad Yadav's Janata Dal (United)". The New Indian Express. 2014-12-29. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  11. ^ "Swamy merges Janata Party with BJP". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  12. ^ "Subramanian Swamy's Janata Party merges with Bharatiya Janata Party". Ndtv.com. 2013-08-11. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  13. ^ "From Lucknow to Delhi, parties that died with their founders". The Indian Express. 24 December 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
Original content from Wikipedia, shared with licence Creative Commons By-Sa - Janata Dal