Kherson

capital city of Kherson Oblast in southern Ukraine

Encyclopedia from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kherson
Херсон
Kherson Perekopska Str. 13 Saviour Cathedral of St.Catherine 04 (YDS 3540).jpg
Успенский собор на Ленина DSC 7267 8 9 fused.jpg
2016 г. Библиотека в Херсоне.jpg
Kherson-2017 Theatre (Horkogo) Str. 27 Synagogue 'Habad' 03 01 (YDS 4127).jpg
Kherson-23102009(039).jpg
Херсон, Леніна вул., 34.JPG
Victory-Monument-Kherson-2.jpg
Flag of Kherson
Coat of arms of Kherson
Kherson is located in Kherson Oblast
Kherson
Kherson
Location of Kherson
Kherson is located in Ukraine
Kherson
Kherson
Kherson (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 46°38′33″N 32°37′30″E / 46.64250°N 32.62500°E / 46.64250; 32.62500Coordinates: 46°38′33″N 32°37′30″E / 46.64250°N 32.62500°E / 46.64250; 32.62500
Country Ukraine
OblastKherson Oblast
City RaionsKherson Raion
Dneprovski Raion
Suvorovski Raion
Komsomolski Raion
Founded18 June 1778
ControlOccupied by Russia[1]
Government
 • MayorIhor Kolykhaiev[2]
Area
 • Total135.7 km2 (52.4 sq mi)
Elevation
46.6 m (152.9 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • TotalDecrease 283,649
Postal code
73000
Area code(s)+380 552
Websitemiskrada.kherson.ua
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Kherson (Ukrainian: Херсо́н, pronounced [xerˈsɔn] (audio speaker iconlisten); Russian: Херсо́н, Russian: [xʲɪrˈson]) is a city in the south of Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Kherson Oblast and an economic center. Kherson is an important port on the Black Sea and on the Dnieper River, and the home of a major ship-building industry. It is the center of Kherson Raion and hosts the administration of Kherson urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[3] As of 2021, it had a population of 283,649 (2021 est.).[4] Kherson has been occupied by Russian forces since 3 March 2022.[5]

History

Foundation and etymology

The city was founded by the decree of Catherine the Great on 18 June 1778 on the high bank of the Dnieper as a central fortress of the Black Sea Fleet. The first new settlement in the "Greek project" of the Empress Catherine II ("the Great") and her favotite Grigory Potemkin, it was named after the ancient Greek city-colony of Chersonesus in Crimea. In Greek, Χερσόνησος (chersonesos), meant "peninsular shore".[6][7]

Imperial port

1783 saw the city granted the rights of a district town and the opening of a local shipyard where the hulls of the Russian Black Sea fleet were laid. In the year the Kherson Shipping Company began operations. By the end of the 18th century, the port had established trade with France, Italy, Spain and other European countries. In 1791, Potemkin was buried in the new-built St. Catherine's Cathedral. In 1803 the city became the capital of the Kherson Governorate.[8]

Industry, beginning with breweries, tanneries and other food and agricultural processing, developed from the 1850s.

In 1897 the population of the city was 59,076 of which, on the basis of their first language, almost half were recorded as Great Russian, 30% as Jewish, and 20% "Little Russian" or Ukrainian.[9]

During the revolution of 1905 there were workers' strikes and an army mutiny (an armed demonstration by soldiers of the 10th Disciplinary Battalion).[10].

The Soviet era

In the wake of their 1917 October Revolution, the Bolsheviks forced from Kiev the Tsentralna Rada which had a declared the Ukrainian People's Republic (UPR). But before they could secure Kherson, they ceded the region under the terms of the March 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk to the German-controlled Ukrainian State. After the withdrawal of German forces in November 1918, the efforts of the UPR (the Petluirites) to assert authority were frustrated by a French-led Allied intervention which occupied Kherson in January 1919.

In March 1919, the Green Army of local warlord Ataman Nikifor Grigoriev (Matviy Hryhoriyiv") ousted the French and Greek garrison and precipatated the Allied evacuation from Odesa. In July, the Bolsheviks defeated Grigoriev who had called upon the Ukrainian people to rise against the "Communist imposters" and their "Jewish commissars,"[11] and had perpetrated pogroms,[11] including in the Kherson region.[12] Kherson itself was occupied by the counter-revolutionary Whites before finally falling to the Bolshevik Red Army in February 1920.[8] In 1922 the city and region was formally incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR a constituent republic of the Soviet Union.

The population was radically reduced from 75,000 to 41, 000 by the famine of 1921–3, but then rose steadily, reaching 97,200 in 1939. Further devastation and population loss resulted from the German occupation during the Second World War. The German occupation, which lasted from August 1941 to March 1944, contended with both Soviet and Ukrainian nationalist (OUN) underground cells. The Kherson district leadership of the OUN was headed by Bogdan Bandera (brother of OUN leader Stepan Bandera).[13]

In the post-war decades, which saw substantial industrial growth, the population more than doubled, reaching 261,000 by 1970.[14] The new factories, including the Comintern Shipbuilding and Repairs Complex, the Kuibyshev Ship Repair Complex, and the Kherson Cotton Textile Manufacturing Complex (one of the largest textile plants in the Soviet Union), and Kherson’s growing grain-exporting port, drew in labour from the Ukrainian countryside. This changed the city's ethnic composition, increasing the Ukrainian share from 36% in 1926 to 63% in 1959, while reducing the Russian share from 36 to 29%. The Jewish population never recovered from the Holocaust visited by the Germans: accounting for 26% of residents in 1926, their number had fallen to just 6% in 1959.[14]

In independent Ukraine

With a turnout of 83.4, in Kherson Oblast 90.1% of the votes cast affirmed Ukrainian independence in the national referendum of 1 December 1991.[15]

Following Russian occupation of Crimea in 2014, Kherson housed the office of the Ukrainian President's representative in Crimea.[16]

Until 18 July 2020, Kherson was incorporated as a city of oblast significance and the center of Kherson Municipality. The municipality was abolished in July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Kherson Oblast to five. The area of Kherson Municipality was merged into newly established Kherson Raion.[17][18]

Russian occupation

Kherson witnessed heavy fighting in the first days of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine (Kherson offensive).[19] As of 2 March 2022 the city was reported to be under Russian control.[20][21]

Under the Russian occupation, locals continued to stage street protests against the invading army's presence and in support of the unity of Ukraine.[22][23]According to the Ukrainian government, the Russian military sought to create a puppet Kherson People's Republic in the style of the Russian-backed separatist polities in the Donbas region and tried to coerce local councilors into endorsing the move, detaining those activists and officials who opposed their design.[24]

On 22 March, the Ukrainian government warned Kherson was facing a "humanitarian catastrophe" as the city was running out of food and medical supplies and accused Russia of blocking evacuation of civilians to Ukraine-controlled territory.[25][26] Russia countered that its military helped deliver aid to the city's population.[27] A local journalist claimed that there was only a staged event, in which former prisoners from Crimea were brought in to act as locals welcoming the Russians and accepting their assistance.[28] Residents report intrusive checkpoints, abductions, and Russian looting of shops.[23][29]

On 15 March, videos from social media and satellite recorded the extensive destruction of Russian equipment and aircraft in the aftermath of a Ukrainian attack on Kherson airport.[30][31] On 25 March, a US Pentagon official reported that Russia no longer held full control over the city as a result of an Ukrainian counter-offensive. [32] However, Ukrainians in Kherson "questioned the Pentagon’s assessment, saying that the city remained under Russian occupation".[33]

Demographics

Ethnicity

As of Ukrainian National Census (2001), the ethnic groups living within Kherson were:

Languages

Languages 1897[34] 2001[35]
Ukrainian 19.6% 53.4%
Russian 47.2% 45.3%
Yiddish 29.1%
Polish 1.7%
German 0.7%

Population

Year Population
1790 24,000
1926 58,000
1939 97,000
1959 158,000
1981 361,000
2004 354,000
2007 329,000
2020 283,338

Administrative divisions

There are three city raions.

  • Suvorov Raion, central and oldest district of the city, named after the Russian General Suvorov. Includes departments: Tavrіjs'kij, Pіvnіchnij and Mlini.
  • Dnipro Raion, named after the Dnieper river. Includes departments: HBK, Tekstilny, Sklotara, Slobіdka, Voyenka, Skhіdny.
  • Korabelny Raion. Includes departments: Shumensky, Korabel, Zabalka, Sukharne, Zhitloselishche, Selishche — 4, Selishche — 5.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Kherson has a humid continental climate (Dfa).[36]

Climate data for Kherson (1991–2020, extremes 1955–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
18.6
(65.5)
22.7
(72.9)
32.0
(89.6)
37.7
(99.9)
39.5
(103.1)
40.5
(104.9)
40.7
(105.3)
36.4
(97.5)
32.0
(89.6)
21.8
(71.2)
17.2
(63.0)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
3.1
(37.6)
8.8
(47.8)
16.5
(61.7)
22.9
(73.2)
27.5
(81.5)
30.3
(86.5)
30.1
(86.2)
23.7
(74.7)
16.1
(61.0)
8.4
(47.1)
3.3
(37.9)
16.0
(60.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
4.1
(39.4)
10.6
(51.1)
16.7
(62.1)
21.2
(70.2)
23.8
(74.8)
23.3
(73.9)
17.5
(63.5)
10.9
(51.6)
4.7
(40.5)
0.4
(32.7)
10.9
(51.6)
Average low °C (°F) −4.4
(24.1)
−3.8
(25.2)
0.0
(32.0)
5.0
(41.0)
10.6
(51.1)
15.3
(59.5)
17.5
(63.5)
16.7
(62.1)
11.8
(53.2)
6.3
(43.3)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −26.3
(−15.3)
−24.4
(−11.9)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−7.9
(17.8)
−1.5
(29.3)
5.5
(41.9)
9.2
(48.6)
6.6
(43.9)
−5.0
(23.0)
−7.6
(18.3)
−16.2
(2.8)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−26.3
(−15.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
30
(1.2)
32
(1.3)
43
(1.7)
59
(2.3)
44
(1.7)
29
(1.1)
38
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
34
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
444
(17.5)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 2
(0.8)
3
(1.2)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
3
(1.2)
Average rainy days 9 7 9 12 11 11 9 6 9 9 12 10 114
Average snowy days 11 10 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 4 8 39
Average relative humidity (%) 85.5 82.1 77.1 68.5 64.8 65.3 62.1 60.7 68.4 76.4 84.9 86.8 73.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 63.7 82.7 134.2 193.3 275.8 294.7 318.5 301.5 228.4 153.8 77.6 50.1 2,174.3
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[37]
Source 2: World Meteorological Organization (humidity and sun 1981–2010)[38]

Transport

Rail

Kherson is connected to the national railroad network of Ukraine. There are daily long-distance services to Kyiv, Lviv and other cities.

Air

Kherson is served by Kherson International Airport. It operates a 2,500 x 42-meter concrete runway, accommodating Boeing 737, Airbus 319/320 aircraft, and helicopters of all series.

The official airport website is https://khe.aero and additional info can be found at http://www.aisukraine.net.

Education

There are 77 high schools as well as 5 colleges. There are 15 institutions of higher education, including:

The documentary Dixie Land was filmed at a music school in Kherson.[39]

Main sights

People

Twin cities

References

  1. ^ "Russia says it captures Ukrainian city of Kherson -RIA". Reuters. 1 March 2022. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  2. ^ (in Ukrainian) The mayor of Kherson became the people's deputy majoritarian Archived 22 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrayinska Pravda (16 November 2020)
  3. ^ "Херсонская громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  4. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  5. ^ "Kherson regional administration captured by Russia". 3 March 2022.
  6. ^ Янко М.Т. (1998). Топонімічний словник України: словник-довідник.
  7. ^ Лучик В.В. (2014). Етимологічний словник топонімів України.
  8. ^ a b "Херсон", Большая Советская Энциклопедия, том 46 (The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Vol. 46), Б. А. Введенский 2-е изд.(B. A. Vvedensky ed.. 2nd Edition). . М., Государственное научное издательство «Большая Советская энциклопедия» (State Scientific Publishing House), 1957, pp. 121-122
  9. ^ Перепись населения 1897 (Census of 1897) г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам. Херсонский уезд, город Херсон
  10. ^ Херсон // Советская историческая энциклопедия / редколл., гл. ред. Е. М. Жуков. том 15. М., государственное научное издательство «Советская энциклопедия», 1974. ("Kherson", Soviet Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 15, E. M. Zhukov. ed., State Scientific Publishing House), 1974. pp 504-506, 571-573
  11. ^ a b Werth, Nicolas (2019). "Chap. 5: 1918-1921. Les pogroms des guerres civiles russes". Le cimetière de l'espérance. Essais sur l'histoire de l'Union soviétique (1914-1991) [Cemetery of Hope. Essays on the History of the Soviet Union (1914–1991)]. Collection Tempus (in French). Perrin. ISBN 978-2-262-07879-9.
  12. ^ Danilenko, Vladimir (2006). Jewish Pogroms in Ukraine, 1918-1921. Fond FR-3050 Kiev District Commission of the Jewish Public Committee for the Provision of Aid to Victims of Pogroms; Opis’ 1-3 (PDF). Kyiv: The State Archive of the Kyiv Oblast. p. 4.
  13. ^ Владимир Ковальчук. Богдан — загадочный брат Степана Бандеры Газета «День», № 30, 20 февраля 2009 года. // day.kiev.ua ("Vladimir Kovalchuk. Bogdan is Stepan Bandera's mysterious brother", The Day, No. 30, 20 February 2009. // day.kiev.ua)
  14. ^ a b "Kherson". www.encyclopediaofukraine.com. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  15. ^ "Ukrainian Independence Referendum". Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. 28 September 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  16. ^ Official website Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Presidential representative of Ukraine in Crimea.
  17. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 18 July 2020. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  18. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України. 17 July 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  19. ^ Reuters (26 February 2022). "Fighting under way near Kherson, Mykolaiv, Odessa - Ukrainian official". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  20. ^ Oliphant, Roland (2 March 2022). "Vladimir Putin set to 'cut Ukraine in two' as key city of Kherson falls to Russians". The Telegraph. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  21. ^ "Kherson falls — Kyiv under fire — Mariupol tragedy". 3 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  22. ^ "Crowds take to the streets of Kherson". BBC News. 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  23. ^ a b Peterson, Scott; Naselenko, Oleksandr (6 April 2022). "Tear gas, arrogance, and resistance: Life in Russia-occupied Kherson". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  24. ^ "Missing reporter among several journalists, activists and officials said to be detained by Russian forces". CNN. 19 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  25. ^ "Ukraine says 300,000 people are running out of food in occupied Kherson". Reuters. 22 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  26. ^ "Medicine shortages and Russian army searches: life in occupied Kherson". France 24. 31 March 2022. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  27. ^ "Ukraine: UN chief calls on Russia to end 'unwinnable' war — as it happened | DW | 22.03.2022". Deutsche Welle. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  28. ^ "Kherson Diary: A first-hand account documenting three weeks of life in a Russian-occupied Ukrainian city. Posted by The Guardian". The Milwaukee Independent. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  29. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche, Snapshot of daily life in Russia-occupied Kherson | DW | 02.04.2022, retrieved 7 April 2022
  30. ^ Kherson Airport: Videos emerge showing aftermath of Ukrainian attack, retrieved 7 April 2022
  31. ^ Rogoway, Joseph Trevithick and Tyler. "Ukraine Strikes Back: Barrage Leaves Russian-Occupied Kherson Airbase In Flames (Updated)". The Drive. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  32. ^ Cooper, Helene. "Russia is not in full control of Kherson anymore, the Pentagon says". New York Times.
  33. ^ Cooper, Helene (25 March 2022). "Conflicting reports emerge on whether Russia is still in full control of Kherson". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  34. ^ Национальный состав населения городов (по языку) Archived 13 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine Всероссийская перепись населения 1897
  35. ^ Ukrainian census in Kherson Oblast[permanent dead link]. State Statistics Service.
  36. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2012.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  37. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). May 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  38. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  39. ^ Bondarchuk, Roman. "Dixie Land". Cineuropa. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  40. ^ "KHERSON". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  41. ^ https://artmuseum.ks.ua/
  42. ^ Levy, Clifford J. "Georgi A. Arbatov, a Bridge Between Cold War Superpowers, Is Dead at 87" Archived 6 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 2 October 2010. Accessed 4 October 2010.
  43. ^ "Self-destructive dance superstar Sergei Polunin: 'Ukraine put me on a list of terrorists'". TheGuardian.com. 7 March 2019. Archived from the original on 6 February 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2022.

External links

Original content from Wikipedia, shared with licence Creative Commons By-Sa - Kherson