Leopardus guttulus

species of mammal

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Southern tiger cat
Leopardus tigrinus (Felis tigrina) - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02677.JPG
CITES Appendix I (CITES)[1]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Leopardus
L. guttulus
Binomial name
Leopardus guttulus
(Hensel, 1872)
SouthernTigerCat distribution.jpg
Distribution of the southern tigrina, 2016[1]

Leopardus guttulus, the southern tiger cat or southern tigrina, is a small wild cat species native to Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay.[1]


Felis guttula was the scientific name used in 1872 by Reinhold Hensel when he described a tiger cat from the jungles of the Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil.[2]

It was long considered to be a subspecies of the oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus).[3] It was recognized as a distinct species in 2013.[4]

It is closely related to Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi), with which it reportedly interbreeds in southern Brazil.[5][6]


The southern tiger cat has a yellowish-ochre coat, patterned with open black rosettes. It is slightly darker than the oncilla, has a larger rosette pattern, and a slightly shorter tail. However, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between the two species by appearance alone, since more genetic variation tends to occur within each species, than between the two species.[4] An adult southern tiger cat weighs between 1.9 and 2.4 kg (4.2 and 5.3 lb).[7]

Distribution and habitat

The southern tiger cat occurs from central to southern Brazil in Minas Gerais and Goiás states, in the Atlantic forest, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina below elevations of 2,000 m (6,600 ft). The population is roughly estimated to comprise around 6,000 mature individuals.[1] It inhabits dense tropical and subtropical rainforests, deciduous and mixed pine forests, open savannahs, and beach vegetation.[8]

At the margins of its range, the southern tiger cat interbreeds with Geoffroy's cat, but it does not appear to interbreed with the oncilla population in northeastern Brazil, which in contrast has a history of interbreeding with the pampas cat L. colocolo. Because of habitat differentiation, interbreeding does not occur between oncilla and southern tiger cat. In contrast, hybridization and introgression occurs between southern tiger cat and Geoffroy's cat at their contact zone in southern Brazil. Many southern tiger cats and Geoffrey's cats are thought to be partial hybrids, because of the high level of interbreeding that is occurring.[4]

Behaviour and ecology

The southern tigrina preys mostly on small mammals, birds and lizards. Average prey weighs less than 100 g (0.22 lb), but also includes larger sized prey up to 1 kg (2.2 lb).[9][4]

The southern tigrina often inhabits the same habitat as the ocelot. In areas with a high ocelot concentration, the southern tigrina populations are smaller, due to competition. When ocelots are scarce, it allows for smaller cat species, such as the southern tigrina, to have better opportunities for shelters, food, and territory, which therefore allows for a larger population size and density of southern tigrina. This phenomenon is called the ocelot effect.[10]

In 2015, two juvenile southern tigrinas were recorded for the first time in the Atlantic forest while learning hunting skills and capturing a cavy. The mother plays an important role in teaching her cubs how to hunt and survive in the wild.[11]


During the fur trade, the southern tiger cat was heavily exploited. Today, the biggest threats to the southern tiger cat include habitat loss and deforestation, hunting by local people, road kills, diseases spread from domestic dogs, and the use of rodent poisoning.[1]


The southern tiger cat occurs in protected areas, but probably at low densities. Currently, a push is on to better understand the ecology, evolution, and genetics of the southern tiger cat to orchestrate a more effective conservation strategy for the species. In addition, further research is being conducted to better understand the special differences between oncilla and southern tiger cat. Hunting of this species is banned in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay.[1]


A demographic expansion following the last glacial maximum (20,000 years ago) is thought to have led to the allopatric speciation of the southern tiger cat.[4]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g de Oliveira, T.; Trigo, T.; Tortato, M.; Paviolo, A.; Bianchi, R.; Leite-Pitman, M.R.P. (2016). "Leopardus guttulus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T54010476A54010576. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T54010476A54010576.en. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  2. ^ Hensel, R. (1872). "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Säugethiere Süd-Brasiliens" [Contributions to the knowledge of south Brazilian mammals]. Physikalische Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (1873): 1–130.
  3. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Species Leopardus tigrinus". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 537–540. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  4. ^ a b c d e Trigo, T. C.; Schneider, A.; de Oliveira, T. G.; Lehugeur, L. M.; Silveira, L.; Freitas, T. R.O. & Eizirik, E. (2013). "Molecular data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of Neotropical Wild Cat". Current Biology. 23 (24): 2528–2533. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.10.046. PMID 24291091.
  5. ^ Trigo, T. C.; Tirelli, F. P.; de Freitas, T. R. O. & Eizirik, E. (2014). "Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil". PLOS ONE. 9 (9): e108469. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j8469T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108469. PMC 4177223. PMID 25250657.
  6. ^ Kasper, C. B.; Peters, F. B.; Christoff, A. U. & de Freitas, T. R. O. (2016). "Trophic relationships of sympatric small carnivores in fragmented landscapes of southern Brazil: niche overlap and potential for competition". Mammalia. 80 (2): 143–152. doi:10.1515/mammalia-2014-0126.
  7. ^ Rinaldi, A.R.; Rodriguez, F.H.; de Carvalho, A.L. & de Camargo Passos, F. (2015). "Feeding of small Neotropical felids (Felidae: Carnivora) and trophic niche overlap in anthropized mosaic landscape of South Brazil". Biotemas. 28 (4): 155−168. doi:10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p155.
  8. ^ Oliveira, T.G. de; Kasper, C.B.; Tortato, M.A.; Marques, R.V.; Mazim, F.D. & Soares, J.B.G. (2008). "Aspectos ecológicos de Leopardus tigrinus e outros felinos de pequeno-médio porte no Brasil". In T.G. de Oliveira (ed.). Plano de ação para conservação de Leopardus tigrinus no Brasil. Atibaia, SP, Brazil: Instituto Pró-Carnívoros, Fundo Nacional do Meio Ambiente. pp. 37–105.
  9. ^ Facure-Giaretta, K.G. (2002). Ecologia alimentar de duas espécies de felinos do gênero Leopardus em uma floresta secundária no sudeste do Brasil. PhD thesis. Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
  10. ^ De Oliveira, T.G.; Tortato, M.A.; Silveira, L.; Kasper, C.B.; Mazim, F.D.; Lucherini, M.; Jácomo, A.T.; Soares, J.B.G.; Marques, R.V. & Sunquist, M. (2010). "Ocelot ecology and its effect on the small-felid guild in the lowland Neotropics". In Macdonald, D. & Loveridge, A. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 559–580. ISBN 9780199234448.
  11. ^ Bogoni, J. A.; Graipel, M. E.; de Castilho, P. V.; Peroni, N. (2017). "Development of predatory behaviours in young southern tigrinas (Leopardus guttulus)". Mammalia. 81 (4): 421–424. doi:10.1515/mammalia-2015-0165. S2CID 89114475.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

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