List of interstate wars since 1945

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This is a list of interstate wars since 1945. Interstate warfare has been defined as military conflict between separate states over a territory.[1] This does not include civil wars and wars of independence, or smaller clashes with limited casualties (less than 100 combat deaths). The largest interstate war in history, World War II, involved most of the world's countries, after which the United Nations (UN) was established in 1945 to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts.[2] The period of the Cold War (1945–1991) was marked by the absence of major wars between the great powers of the period, the United States and the Soviet Union.[3][4][5] However, when the Cold War ended the same trends continued in what has also been called the "New Peace".[6] Overall, the number of international wars decreased from a rate of six per year in the 1950s to one per year in the 2000s, and the number of fatalities decreased from 240 reported deaths per million to less than 10 reported deaths per million.[7][8]

List

The aggressor state is bolded when applicable.

Start Finish Name of conflict State belligerents Combat deaths
Victorious party (if applicable) Defeated party (if applicable) Min estimate Max estimate
22 October 1947 5 January 1949 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947  India (Ceasefire)  Pakistan (Ceasefire) 2,604 7,500
14 May 1948 10 March 1949 1948 Arab–Israeli War  Israel  Egypt

 Iraq

 Transjordan

Syria

 Lebanon

 Saudi Arabia

 Yemen
13,073 26,373
13 September 1948 18 September 1948 Operation Polo  India Royal State of Hyderabad 32,190 202,190
25 June 1950 27 July 1953[9] (de facto) Korean War (stalemate)[10] (stalemate) 2,568,927 4,096,927
3 September 1954 1 May 1955 First Taiwan Strait Crisis  China  Republic of China
 United States
914 1054
1 November 1955 30 April 1975 Vietnam War North Vietnam

FNL

Khmer Rouge

Khmer Issarak

Pathet Lao

 China

 North Korea

 Soviet Union

 South Vietnam

 United States

 South Korea

 Thailand

 Australia

 New Zealand

 Laos

 Khmer Republic

 Philippines

1,326,494 3,447,494
29 October 1956 7 November 1956 Suez Crisis  Israel[11][12]

 United Kingdom

France

Egypt[13] 2,848 4,198
23 October 1957 30 June 1958 Ifni War  Spain

 France

 Morocco 1,197
1961 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion  Cuba  United States 2,298
1961 1961 Bizerte crisis  France  Tunisia 654 657
19 December 1961 15 August 1962 Operation Trikora  Indonesia  Netherlands 223
1962 1962 Sino-Indian War  China  India 2,105 6,197
1963 1963 Sand War  Morocco  Algeria 69 500
1963 1966 Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation  Malaysia

 United Kingdom

 Australia

 New Zealand

 Indonesia 874
1965 1965 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 India India (Inconclusive)  Pakistan (Inconclusive) 6,800 13,459
1966 1969 Korean DMZ Conflict South Korea

 United States

 North Korea 739
1967 1967 Six-Day War  Israel[14]  Egypt

 Syria

 Jordan

Arab Expeditionary Forces:

Iraq

 Saudi Arabia

 Morocco

 Algeria

 Libya

 Kuwait

 Tunisia

Sudan

12,336 19,264
1967 1970 War of Attrition  Israel  Egypt

 Soviet Union

 Cuba

 Jordan

 Syria

6,442 14,290
1968 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia  Soviet Union

Bulgaria

 East Germany

Hungary

Poland

 Czechoslovakia 254
1969 1969 Football War  El Salvador  Honduras 3,000
1969 1969 Sino-Soviet border conflict  China (Statu quo ante bellum)  Soviet Union (Statu quo ante bellum) 132 860
1971 1971 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971  India[15][16][17]  Pakistan 11,500 12,843
1973 1973 Yom Kippur War  Israel  Egypt

 Syria

Combat support:

10,521 21,300
1974 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus  Turkey  Cyprus

 Greece

6,009 9,509
1974 1975 1974–75 Shatt al-Arab clashes Iran Iraq 1,000+
7 December 1975 17 July 1976 Indonesian invasion of East Timor  Indonesia  East Timor 51,000+
1975 1989 Cambodian–Vietnamese War  Vietnam

People's Republic of Kampuchea

Democratic Kampuchea

 Thailand

Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg United States

270,000 297,000
1977 1977 Libyan–Egyptian War  Egypt  Libya 500
1977 1978 Ogaden War Ethiopia

 Cuba

South Yemen

 Soviet Union

 Somali Democratic Republic 39,836
1978 1979 Uganda–Tanzania War  Tanzania

 Mozambique

 Uganda

 Libya

4,135 4,323
1978 1987 Chadian–Libyan conflict  Chad

 France

 Libya 8,500+
1979 1979 Yemenite War of 1979  North Yemen  South Yemen 1,084
1979 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War  Vietnam  China 36,945 175,000
1980 1988 Iran–Iraq War  Iran[22]  Iraq 405,000 1,200,000
2 April 1982 14 June 1982 Falklands War  United Kingdom  Argentina 907
18 April 1983 1983 Chadian–Nigerian War  Nigeria  Chad 100+
25 October 1983 29 October 1983 Invasion of Grenada  United States

 Antigua and Barbuda

 Barbados

 Dominica

 Jamaica

 Saint Lucia

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

 Grenada

 Cuba

102
25 December 1985 30 December 1985 Agacher Strip War  Mali  Burkina Faso 142
9 April 1989 18 July 1991 Mauritania–Senegal Border War  Mauritania  Senegal 200+
20 December 1989 31 January 1990 United States invasion of Panama  United States  Panama 540 3,338
1990 1991 Gulf War  Kuwait

 United States

 United Kingdom

 Saudi Arabia

 France

 Italy

 Canada

 Australia

 Egypt

 Syria

 Qatar

Iraq Iraq 29,231 59,231
1992 12 May 1994 First Nagorno-Karabakh War  Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

 Armenia

 Azerbaijan 37,413 56,000
1994 1994 Operation Uphold Democracy  United States  Haiti 302 302
1995 1995 Cenepa War  Peru  Ecuador 84 410
1998 2000 Eritrean–Ethiopian War  Ethiopia  Eritrea 53,000 300,000
1999 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia  NATO  FR Yugoslavia 796 3,011
1999 1999 Kargil War  India  Pakistan 884 5,600
2000 2000 Six-Day War  Rwanda  Uganda 4,051+
2001 2001 United States invasion of Afghanistan  United States

 United Kingdom

 Canada

 Australia

 Afghanistan
2003 2003 2003 invasion of Iraq  United States

 United Kingdom

 Australia

 Poland

 Iraq 10,996 – 52,456
2008 2008 Russo-Georgian War  Russia

 South Ossetia

 Abkhazia

 Georgia 730 737
2011 2011 2011 military intervention in Libya  NATO

 Qatar

 Sweden

 United Arab Emirates

 Libya 72 403+
2012 2012 Heglig Crisis  Sudan  South Sudan 316 1,485
2013 Ongoing Iran–Israel conflict during the Syrian civil war  Israel  Iran

 Syria

645 671
2014 Ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War Ukraine Ukraine (Ongoing)  Russia (Ongoing)

In Donbas:

 Donetsk People's Republic

 Luhansk People's Republic

13,780
2014 Ongoing American-led intervention in the Syrian civil war  United States  Syria

 Russia

 Iran

192+
2016 2016 2016 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes  Azerbaijan

 Republic of Artsakh

 Armenia

137 2,060
2020 2020 Operation Spring Shield  Turkey  Syria

 Iran

238 446
2020 2020 Second Nagorno-Karabakh war  Azerbaijan  Armenia

 Artsakh

7,726
2022 Ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine

Part of the Russo-Ukrainian War

Ukraine Ukraine (Ongoing)  Russia (Ongoing)

In Donbas:

 Donetsk People's Republic

 Luhansk People's Republic

7143+ (ongoing) 68000+ (ongoing)

See also

References

  1. ^ Ray, James Lee (2002). "Does Interstate War Have A Future?". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 19 (1): 53–80. ISSN 0738-8942.
  2. ^ "History of the UN | United Nations Seventieth Anniversary". www.un.org. Retrieved 2022-03-09.
  3. ^ Gaddis, John Lewis (1989). The Long Peace: Inquiries Into the History of the Cold War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504335-9.
  4. ^ Saperstein, Alvin M. (March 1991). "The "Long Peace"— Result of a Bipolar Competitive World?". The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 35 (1): 68–79. doi:10.1177/0022002791035001004. S2CID 153738298.
  5. ^ Duffield, John S. (2009). "Explaining the Long Peace in Europe: the contributions of regional security regimes". Review of International Studies. 20 (4): 369–388. doi:10.1017/S0260210500118170. ISSN 0260-2105.
  6. ^ Fettweis, Christopher J. (2017). "Unipolarity, Hegemony, and the New Peace". Security Studies. 26 (3): 423–451. doi:10.1080/09636412.2017.1306394. ISSN 0963-6412. S2CID 148993870.
  7. ^ Freedman, Lawrence (2014). "Stephen Pinker and the long peace: alliance, deterrence and decline". Cold War History. 14 (4): 657–672. doi:10.1080/14682745.2014.950243. ISSN 1468-2745. S2CID 154846757.
  8. ^ Human Security Research Group, Simon Fraser University (2013). "Human Security Report 2013: The Decline in Global Violence" (PDF). Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  9. ^ US State Department statement regarding "Korea: Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission" and the Armistice Agreement "which ended the Korean War."
  10. ^ "The Korean War (article) | 1950s America". Khan Academy. Retrieved 2022-03-18.
  11. ^ "Israel Routs Egypt"
  12. ^ "Israel invades Egypt; Suez Crisis begins"
  13. ^ "Nasser lost the war in military terms"
  14. ^ "Six-Day War"
  15. ^ Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2. India's decisive victory over Pakistan in the 1971 war and emergence of independent Bangladesh dramatically transformed the power balance of South Asia
  16. ^ Kemp, Geoffrey (2010). The East Moves West India, China, and Asia's Growing Presence in the Middle East. Brookings Institution Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8157-0388-4. However, India's decisive victory over Pakistan in 1971 led the Shah to pursue closer relations with India
  17. ^ Byman, Daniel (2005). Deadly connections: States that Sponsor Terrorism. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-521-83973-0. India's decisive victory in 1971 led to the signing of the Simla Agreement in 1972
  18. ^ Shazly, p. 278.
  19. ^ Perez, Louis A. (2014). Cuba Between Reform And Revolution (Paperback ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 978-0199301447. Cuba also dispatched combat troops to Syria in 1973 during the Yom Kipur War
  20. ^ Gott, Cuba, A New History, p. 280.
  21. ^ Tobji, Mahjoub (2006). Les officiers de Sa Majesté: Les dérives des généraux marocains 1956–2006. 107: Fayard. ISBN 978-2213630151.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  22. ^ "Iran 'won' the war with Iraq but at a heavy price". Atlantic Council. 2021-09-22. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
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