List of invasions and occupations of Ukraine

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Ukraine has been invaded or occupied a number of times throughout its history.

Conflict Invasion Invading force(s) Year Details
Ukrainian War of Independence and Soviet–Ukrainian War
(1917–1921)
1918 Soviet invasion of Ukraine  Soviet Union 1918 Initial fighting in the war lasted from January to June of 1918, ending with the Central Powers' intervention.[1]: 350, 403 
1918 Central Powers intervention in Ukraine  German Empire
 Austro-Hungarian Empire
Imperial German and Austro-Hungarian forces entered Ukraine to push out the Russians, as part of an agreement with the Ukrainian People's Republic.[1]: 397, 403 

Occupation: Ukrainian State (1918), a German-installed government of much of Ukraine.

1919 Soviet invasion of Ukraine  Soviet Union 1919 A full-scale invasion began in January 1919.[1]: 364 
World War II
(1939–1945)
Hungaro-Ukrainian War  Kingdom of Hungary 1939 The Kingdom of Hungary invaded Ukraine and annexed Transcarpathian Ukraine.[1]: 518 

Occupation: Governorate of Subcarpathia (1939–1945), an autonomous region including occupied Transcarpathian Ukraine.

Operation Barbarossa  Nazi Germany

 Kingdom of Romania

1941 Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, including Ukraine,[1]: 453, 460  with assistance from allied Romania.[2]

Occupations:

Russo-Ukrainian War
(2014–present)
Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation  Russian Federation 2014 The Russian Federation annexed Crimea from February to March, described by some observers as an annexation[3] and by others as an infiltration.[4]

Occupation: The Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol (2014–present), claimed by Russia as federal subjects and considered an occupation by the government of Ukraine (as part of the temporarily occupied territories of Ukraine) and by the United Nations.[5][6]

War in Donbas After a commencement of hostilities in April 2014, Russian forces invaded Donbas in August of that year.[7] While many Russian soldiers withdrew in September,[8] multiple ceasefires were declared and broken in the following years.

Ukraine also considers the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic (2014–present), separatist entities nominally independent from Russia, to be part of the temporarily occupied territories of Ukraine.

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
2022 Russian forces invaded Ukraine on 24 February 2022.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine : a history (3 ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-8282-5. OCLC 288146960.
  2. ^ a b Solonari, Vladimir (2019). A Satellite Empire: Romanian Rule in Southwestern Ukraine, 1941-1944. Ithaca, New York. ISBN 978-1-5017-4319-1. OCLC 1083701372.
  3. ^ Pifer, Steven (18 March 2019). "Five years after Crimea's illegal annexation, the issue is no closer to resolution". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  4. ^ Simpson, John (19 March 2014). "Russia's Crimea plan detailed, secret and successful". BBC News. Retrieved 24 February 2022. The takeover of Crimea has been completely different. This was an infiltration, not an invasion.
  5. ^ "'Няша' Поклонська обіцяє бійцям 'Беркута' покарати учасників Майдану" ["Nasha" Poklonsky promises to the "Berkut" fighters to punish the participants of the Maidan]. Segodnya (in Ukrainian). 20 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  6. ^ United Nations. "71/205. Situation of human rights in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol (Ukraine)". undocs.org. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  7. ^ Kramer, Andrew E.; Gordon, Michael R. (27 August 2014). "Ukraine Reports Russian Invasion on a New Front". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  8. ^ Harding, Luke (10 September 2014). "Ukraine says most Russian troops have moved back across border". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  9. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Russian forces invade after Putin TV declaration". BBC News. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
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