Winfrey in October 2014
Orpah Gail Winfrey
January 29, 1954
Kosciusko, Mississippi, U.S.
|Alma mater||Tennessee State University|
|Net worth||US$2.5 billion (September 2020)|
|Partner(s)||Stedman Graham (1986–present)|
|Children||Canaan (b. 1968; d. 1968)|
Oprah Gail Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American talk show host, television producer, actress, author, and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show, The Oprah Winfrey Show, broadcast from Chicago, which was the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and ran in national syndication for 25 years from 1986 to 2011. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media", she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America's first black multi-billionaire, and she has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history. By 2007, she was sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world.
Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and later raised in inner-city Milwaukee. She has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14; her son was born prematurely and died in infancy. Winfrey was then sent to live with the man she calls her father, Vernon Winfrey, a barber in Tennessee, and landed a job in radio while still in high school. By 19, she was a co-anchor for the local evening news. Winfrey's often emotional, extemporaneous delivery eventually led to her transfer to the daytime talk show arena, and after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place, she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.
Credited with creating a more intimate, confessional form of media communication, Winfrey popularized and revolutionized the tabloid talk show genre pioneered by Phil Donahue. In 1994, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.
By the mid-1990s, Winfrey had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement, mindfulness, and spirituality. Though she was criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas, and having an emotion-centered approach, she has also been praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others. Winfrey had also emerged as a political force in the 2008 presidential race, with her endorsement of Barack Obama being estimated to have been worth about one million votes during the 2008 Democratic primaries. In 2013, Winfrey was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard. In 2008, she formed her own network, Oprah Winfrey Network (OWN).
Winfrey has won many accolades throughout her career which includes 18 Daytime Emmy Awards, including the Lifetime Achievement Award and the Chairman’s Award, 2 Primetime Emmy Awards, including the Bob Hope Humanitarian Award, a Tony Award, a Peabody Award and the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, awarded by the Academy Awards and two additional Academy Award nominations.
Winfrey was born Orpah Gail Winfrey; her first name was spelled Orpah (not Oprah) on her birth certificate after the biblical figure in the Book of Ruth, but people mispronounced it regularly and "Oprah" stuck. She was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi to an unmarried teenage mother. Her mother, Vernita Lee (1935–2018), was a housemaid. Winfrey's biological father is usually noted as Vernon Winfrey (born c. 1933), a coal miner turned barber turned city councilman who had been in the Armed Forces when she was born. However, Mississippi farmer and World War II Veteran Noah Robinson Sr. (born c. 1925) has claimed to be her biological father.
A genetic test in 2006 determined that her matrilineal line originated among the Kpelle ethnic group, in the area that today is Liberia. Her genetic makeup was determined to be 89% Sub-Saharan African, 8% Native American, and 3% East Asian. However, given the imprecision of genetic testing, the East Asian markers may actually be Native American.
After Winfrey's birth, her mother traveled north, and Winfrey spent her first six years living in rural poverty with her maternal grandmother, Hattie Mae (Presley) Lee (April 15, 1900 – February 27, 1963). Her grandmother was so poor that Winfrey often wore dresses made of potato sacks, for which other children made fun of her. Her grandmother taught her to read before the age of three and took her to the local church, where she was nicknamed "The Preacher" for her ability to recite Bible verses. When Winfrey was a child, her grandmother was reportedly abusive.
At age six, Winfrey moved to an inner-city neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with her mother, who was less supportive and encouraging than her grandmother had been, largely as a result of the long hours she worked as a maid. Around this time, Lee had given birth to another daughter, Winfrey's younger half-sister, Patricia who died of causes related to cocaine addiction in February 2003 at age 43.
By 1962, Lee was having difficulty raising both daughters, so Winfrey was temporarily sent to live with Vernon in Nashville, Tennessee. While Winfrey was in Nashville, Lee gave birth to a third daughter who was put up for adoption in the hopes of easing the financial straits that had led to Lee's being on welfare, and was later also named Patricia. Winfrey did not learn she had a second half-sister until 2010. By the time Winfrey moved back with her mother, Lee had also given birth to Winfrey's half-brother Jeffrey, who died of AIDS-related causes in 1989.
Winfrey has stated she was molested by her cousin, uncle, and a family friend, starting when she was nine years old, something she first announced on a 1986 episode of her TV show regarding sexual abuse. When Winfrey discussed the alleged abuse with family members at age 24, they reportedly refused to believe her account.
Winfrey once commented that she had chosen not to be a mother because she had not been mothered well. At 13, after suffering what she described as years of abuse, Winfrey ran away from home. When she was 14, she became pregnant but her son was born prematurely and he died shortly after birth. Winfrey later stated she felt betrayed by the family member who had sold the story of her son to the National Enquirer in 1990.
She attended Lincoln High School in Milwaukee, but after early success in the Upward Bound program, was transferred to the affluent suburban Nicolet High School. Upon transferring, she said she was continually reminded of her poverty as she rode the bus to school with fellow African-Americans, some of whom were servants of her classmates' families. She began to rebel and steal money from her mother in an effort to keep up with her free-spending peers.
As a result, her mother once again sent her to live with Vernon in Nashville, although this time she did not take her back. Vernon was strict but encouraging, and made her education a priority. Winfrey became an honors student, was voted Most Popular Girl, and joined her high school speech team at East Nashville High School, placing second in the nation in dramatic interpretation.
She won an oratory contest, which secured her a full scholarship to Tennessee State University, a historically black institution, where she studied communication. Her first job as a teenager was working at a local grocery store. At the age of 17, Winfrey won the Miss Black Tennessee beauty pageant. She also attracted the attention of the local black radio station, WVOL, which hired her to do the news part-time. She worked there during her senior year of high school and in her first two years of college.
Winfrey's career in media would not have surprised her grandmother, who once said that ever since Winfrey could talk, she was on stage. As a child, she played games interviewing her corncob doll and the crows on the fence of her family's property. Winfrey later acknowledged her grandmother's influence, saying it was Hattie Mae who had encouraged her to speak in public and "gave me a positive sense of myself".
Working in local media, she was both the youngest news anchor and the first black female news anchor at Nashville's WLAC-TV. In 1976, she moved to Baltimore's WJZ-TV to co-anchor the six o'clock news. In 1977, she was removed as co-anchor and worked in lower profile positions at the station. She was then recruited to join Richard Sher as co-host of WJZ's local talk show People Are Talking, which premiered on August 14, 1978. She also hosted the local version of Dialing for Dollars.
In 1983, Winfrey relocated to Chicago to host WLS-TV's low-rated half-hour morning talk show, AM Chicago. The first episode aired on January 2, 1984. Within months after Winfrey took over, the show went from last place in the ratings to overtaking Donahue as the highest-rated talk show in Chicago. The movie critic Roger Ebert persuaded her to sign a syndication deal with King World. Ebert predicted that she would generate 40 times as much revenue as his television show, At the Movies. It was then renamed The Oprah Winfrey Show and expanded to a full hour. The first episode was broadcast nationwide on September 8, 1986. Winfrey's syndicated show brought in double Donahue's national audience, displacing Donahue as the number-one daytime talk show in America. Their much-publicized contest was the subject of enormous scrutiny. TIME magazine wrote:
Few people would have bet on Oprah Winfrey's swift rise to host of the most popular talk show on TV. In a field dominated by white males, she is a black female of ample bulk. As interviewers go, she is no match for, say, Phil Donahue ... What she lacks in journalistic toughness, she makes up for in plainspoken curiosity, robust humor and, above all empathy. Guests with sad stories to tell are apt to rouse a tear in Oprah's eye ... They, in turn, often find themselves revealing things they would not imagine telling anyone, much less a national TV audience. It is the talk show as a group therapy session.
TV columnist Howard Rosenberg said, "She's a roundhouse, a full course meal, big, brassy, loud, aggressive, hyper, laughable, lovable, soulful, tender, low-down, earthy, and hungry. And she may know the way to Phil Donahue's jugular." Newsday's Les Payne observed, "Oprah Winfrey is sharper than Donahue, wittier, more genuine, and far better attuned to her audience, if not the world" and Martha Bayles of The Wall Street Journal wrote, "It's a relief to see a gab-monger with a fond but realistic assessment of her own cultural and religious roots."
In the early years of The Oprah Winfrey Show, the program was classified as a tabloid talk show. In the mid-1990s, Winfrey began to host shows on broader topics such as heart disease, geopolitics, spirituality, and meditation. She interviewed celebrities on social issues they were directly involved with, such as cancer, charity work, or substance abuse, and hosted televised giveaways. In later years Winfrey was criticized for allowing celebrities to make pseudoscientific claims on her show such as Jenny McCarthy's unfounded assertions about vaccines, and Suzanne Somers's promotion of bioidenticals.
In addition to her talk show, Winfrey also produced and co-starred in the 1989 drama miniseries The Women of Brewster Place and a short-lived spin-off, Brewster Place. As well as hosting and appearing on television shows, Winfrey co-founded the women's cable television network Oxygen which was the initial network for her Oprah After the Show program from 2002 to 2006 before moving to Oprah.com when Winfrey sold her stake in the network. She is also the president of Harpo Productions (Oprah spelled backwards). She also moderated three ABC Afterschool Specials from 1992 to 1994.
On January 15, 2008, Winfrey and Discovery Communications announced plans to change Discovery Health Channel into a new channel called OWN: Oprah Winfrey Network. It was scheduled to launch in 2009 but was delayed, and actually launched on January 1, 2011.
The series finale of The Oprah Winfrey Show aired on May 25, 2011.
In January 2017, CBS announced that Winfrey would join 60 Minutes as a special contributor on the Sunday evening news magazine program starting in September 2017. The National Museum of African American History and Culture in 2018 opened a special exhibit on Winfrey's cultural influence through television. Winfrey left 60 Minutes by the end of 2018.
In June 2018, Apple announced a multi-year content partnership with Winfrey, in which it was agreed that Winfrey would create new original programs exclusively for Apple's streaming service, Apple TV+. The first show under the deal, Oprah's Book Club, premiered on November 1, 2019. Oprah's Book Club is based on the segment of the same name from The Oprah Winfrey Show. The second show under the deal, Oprah Talks COVID-19, debuted on March 21, 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A third show, The Oprah Conversation is set to debut on July 30, 2020, and will see Winfrey "continue to explore impactful and relevant topics with fascinating thought leaders from all over the world".
In 1993, Winfrey hosted a rare prime-time interview with Michael Jackson, which became the fourth most-watched event in American television history as well as the most watched interview ever, with an audience of 36.5 million. On December 1, 2005, Winfrey appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman to promote the new Broadway musical The Color Purple, of which she was a producer, joining the host for the first time in 16 years. The episode was hailed by some as the "television event of the decade" and helped Letterman attract his largest audience in more than 11 years: 13.45 million viewers. Although a much-rumored feud was said to have been the cause of the rift, both Winfrey and Letterman balked at such talk. "I want you to know, it's really over, whatever you thought was happening", said Winfrey. On September 10, 2007, Letterman made his first appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show, as its season premiere was filmed in New York City.
In 2006, rappers Ludacris, 50 Cent, and Ice Cube criticized Winfrey for what they perceived as an anti-hip hop bias. In an interview with GQ magazine, Ludacris said that Winfrey gave him a "hard time" about his lyrics, and edited comments he made during an appearance on her show with the cast of the film Crash. He also said that he wasn't initially invited on the show with the rest of the cast. Winfrey responded by saying that she is opposed to rap lyrics that "marginalize women", but enjoys some artists, including Kanye West, who appeared on her show. She said she spoke with Ludacris backstage after his appearance to explain her position and said she understood that his music was for entertainment purposes, but that some of his listeners might take it literally. In September 2008, Winfrey received criticism after Matt Drudge of the Drudge Report reported that Winfrey refused to have Sarah Palin on her show, allegedly because of Winfrey's support for Barack Obama. Winfrey denied the report, maintaining that there never was a discussion regarding Palin's appearing on her show. She said that after she made public her support for Obama, she decided that she would not let her show be used as a platform for any of the candidates. Although Obama appeared twice on her show, those appearances were prior to his declaring himself a candidate. Winfrey added that Palin would make a fantastic guest and that she would love to have her on the show after the election, which she did on November 18, 2009.
Critics have also suggested that Winfrey is not tough enough when questioning celebrity guests or politicians whom she appears to like. Lisa de Moraes, a media columnist for The Washington Post, stated: "Oprah doesn't do follow-up questions unless you're an author who's embarrassed her by fabricating portions of a supposed memoir she's plugged for her book club."
In 1985, Winfrey co-starred in Steven Spielberg's The Color Purple as distraught housewife Sofia. She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance. The Alice Walker novel went on to become a Broadway musical which opened in late 2005, with Winfrey credited as a producer. In October 1998, Winfrey produced and starred in the film Beloved, based on Toni Morrison's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name. To prepare for her role as Sethe, the protagonist and former slave, Winfrey experienced a 24-hour simulation of the experience of slavery, which included being tied up and blindfolded and left alone in the woods. Despite major advertising, including two episodes of her talk show dedicated solely to the film, and moderate to good critical reviews, Beloved opened to poor box-office results, losing approximately $30 million. While promoting the movie, co-star Thandie Newton described Winfrey as "a very strong technical actress and it's because she's so smart. She's acute. She's got a mind like a razor blade." In 2005, Harpo Productions released a film adaptation of Zora Neale Hurston's 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. The made-for-television film was based upon a teleplay by Suzan-Lori Parks and starred Halle Berry in the lead female role.
Oprah voiced Gussie the goose in Charlotte's Web (2006) and voiced Judge Bumbleton in Bee Movie (2007), co-starring the voices of Jerry Seinfeld and Renée Zellweger. In 2009, Winfrey provided the voice for the character of Eudora, the mother of Princess Tiana, in Disney's The Princess and the Frog and in 2010, narrated the US version of the BBC nature program Life for Discovery.
In 2018, Winfrey starred as Mrs. Which in the film adaptation of Madeleine L'Engle's novel A Wrinkle in Time. She also lent her voice to an animated virtual-reality short film written and directed by Eric Darnell, starring John Legend, titled Crow: The Legend, telling a native American origin tale.
Publishing and writing
Winfrey has co-authored five books. At the announcement of a weight-loss book in 2005, co-authored with her personal trainer Bob Greene, it was said that her undisclosed advance fee had broken the record for the world's highest book advance fee, previously held by the autobiography of former U.S. President Bill Clinton.
Winfrey publishes the magazine: O, The Oprah Magazine and from 2004 to 2008 also published a magazine called O At Home. In 2002, Fortune called O, the Oprah Magazine the most successful start-up ever in the industry. Although its circulation had declined by more than 10 percent (to 2.4 million) from 2005 to 2008, the January 2009 issue was the best selling issue since 2006. The audience for her magazine is considerably more upscale than for her TV show; the average reader earns well above the median for U.S. women. In July 2020, it was announced that O Magazine will end its regular print publications after the December 2020 issue.
Winfrey's company created the Oprah.com website to provide resources and interactive content relating to her shows, magazines, book club, and public charity. Oprah.com averages more than 70 million page views and more than six million users per month, and receives approximately 20,000 e-mails each week. Winfrey initiated "Oprah's Child Predator Watch List", through her show and website, to help track down accused child molesters. Within the first 48 hours, two of the featured men were captured.
On February 9, 2006, it was announced that Winfrey had signed a three-year, $55-million contract with XM Satellite Radio to establish a new radio channel. The channel, Oprah Radio, features popular contributors to The Oprah Winfrey Show and O, The Oprah Magazine including Nate Berkus, Dr. Mehmet Oz, Bob Greene, Dr. Robin Smith, and Marianne Williamson. Oprah & Friends began broadcasting at 11:00 am ET, September 25, 2006, from a new studio at Winfrey's Chicago headquarters. The channel broadcasts 24 hours a day, seven days a week on XM Radio Channel 156. Winfrey's contract requires her to be on the air 30 minutes a week, 39 weeks a year.
In 2015, Winfrey purchased a minority stake in the publicly traded company Weight Watchers for a reported $34 million. By 2020, the value of those shares had increased to as much as $430 million. She also is an investor in True Food Kitchen, a restaurant chain founded by author Andrew Weil.
Winfrey currently lives on "The Promised Land", her 42-acre (17-ha) estate with ocean and mountain views in Montecito, California. Winfrey also owns a house in Lavallette, New Jersey; an apartment in Chicago; an estate on Fisher Island, Florida; a ski house in Telluride, Colorado; and properties on Maui, Hawaii; Antigua; and Orcas Island, Washington State.
Winfrey's high school sweetheart Anthony Otey recalled an innocent courtship that began in Winfrey's senior year of high school, from which he saved hundreds of love notes; Winfrey conducted herself with dignity and as a model student. The two spoke of getting married, but Otey claimed to have always secretly known that Winfrey was destined for a far greater life than he could ever provide. She broke up with him on Valentine's Day of her senior year.
In 1971, several months after breaking up with Otey, Winfrey met William "Bubba" Taylor at Tennessee State University. According to CBS journalist George Mair, Taylor was Winfrey's "first intense, to die for love affair". Winfrey helped get Taylor a job at WVOL, and according to Mair, "did everything to keep him, including literally begging him on her knees to stay with her." Taylor, however, was unwilling to leave Nashville with Winfrey when she moved to Baltimore to work at WJZ-TV in June 1976. "We really did care for each other", Winfrey would later recall. "We shared a deep love. A love I will never forget."
When WJZ-TV management criticized Winfrey for crying on the air while reporting tragedies and were unhappy with her physical appearance (especially when her hair fell out as the result of a bad perm), Winfrey turned to reporter Lloyd Kramer for comfort. "Lloyd was just the best", Winfrey would later recall. "That man loved me even when I was bald! He was wonderful. He stuck with me through the whole demoralizing experience. That man was the most fun romance I ever had."
According to Mair, when Kramer moved to NBC in New York, Winfrey had a love affair with a married man who had no intention of leaving his wife. Winfrey would later recall: "I'd had a relationship with a man for four years. I wasn't living with him. I'd never lived with anyone—and I thought I was worthless without him. The more he rejected me, the more I wanted him. I felt depleted, powerless. At the end, I was down on the floor on my knees groveling and pleading with him". Winfrey became so depressed that on September 8, 1981, she wrote a suicide note to best friend Gayle King instructing King to water her plants. "That suicide note had been much overplayed" Winfrey told Ms. magazine. "I couldn't kill myself. I would be afraid the minute I did it, something really good would happen and I'd miss it."
According to Winfrey, her emotional turmoil gradually led to a weight problem: "The reason I gained so much weight in the first place and the reason I had such a sorry history of abusive relationships with men was I just needed approval so much. I needed everyone to like me, because I didn't like myself much. So I'd end up with these cruel self-absorbed guys who'd tell me how selfish I was, and I'd say 'Oh thank you, you're so right' and be grateful to them. Because I had no sense that I deserved anything else. Which is also why I gained so much weight later on. It was the perfect way of cushioning myself against the world's disapproval."
Winfrey later confessed to smoking crack cocaine with a man she was romantically involved with during the same era. She explained on her show: "I always felt that the drug itself is not the problem but that I was addicted to the man." She added: "I can't think of anything I wouldn't have done for that man."
Winfrey was allegedly involved in a second drug-related love affair. Self-proclaimed former boyfriend Randolph Cook said they lived together for several months in 1985 and did drugs. In 1997, Cook tried to sue Winfrey for $20 million for allegedly blocking a tell-all book about their alleged relationship.
In 1985, before Winfrey's Chicago talk show had gone national, Haitian filmmaker Reginald Chevalier claims he appeared as a guest on a look-alike segment and began a relationship with Winfrey involving romantic evenings at home, candlelit baths, and dinners with Michael Jordan and Danny Glover. Chevalier says Winfrey ended the relationship when she met Stedman Graham.
Winfrey's best friend since their early twenties is Gayle King. King was formerly the host of The Gayle King Show and is currently an editor of O, the Oprah Magazine. Since 1997, when Winfrey played the therapist on an episode of the sitcom Ellen in which Ellen DeGeneres came out of the closet, Winfrey and King have been the target of persistent rumors that they were gay. "I understand why people think we're gay", Winfrey says in the August 2006 issue of O magazine. "There isn't a definition in our culture for this kind of bond between women. So I get why people have to label it—how can you be this close without it being sexual?" "I've told nearly everything there is to tell. All my stuff is out there. People think I'd be so ashamed of being gay that I wouldn't admit it? Oh, please."
Winfrey has also had a long friendship with Maria Shriver, after they met in Baltimore. Winfrey considered Maya Angelou, author of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, her mentor and close friend; she called Angelou her "mother-sister-friend." Winfrey hosted a week-long Caribbean cruise for Angelou and 150 guests for Angelou's 70th birthday in 1998, and in 2008, threw her "an extravagant 80th birthday celebration" at Donald Trump's Mar-a-Lago club in Palm Beach, Florida.
Born in rural poverty, and raised by a mother dependent on government welfare payments in a poor urban neighborhood, Winfrey became a millionaire at the age of 32 when her talk show received national syndication. Winfrey negotiated ownership rights to the television program and started her own production company. At the age of 41, Winfrey had a net worth of $340 million and replaced Bill Cosby as the only African American on the Forbes 400. By 2000, with a net worth of $800 million, Winfrey is believed to have been the richest African American of the 20th century. There has been a course taught at the University of Illinois focusing on Winfrey's business acumen, namely: "History 298: Oprah Winfrey, the Tycoon". Winfrey was the highest paid television entertainer in the United States in 2006, earning an estimated $260 million during the year, five times the sum earned by second-place music executive Simon Cowell. By 2008, her yearly income had increased to $275 million.
Forbes' list of The World's Billionaires has listed Winfrey as the world's only black billionaire from 2004 to 2006 and as the first black woman billionaire in the world that was achieved in 2003. As of 2014, Winfrey had a net worth in excess of 2.9 billion dollars and had overtaken former eBay CEO Meg Whitman as the richest self-made woman in America.
Oprah was raised a Baptist. In her early life, she would speak at local, mostly African American congregations of the Southern Baptist Convention that were often deeply religious and familiar with such themes as evangelical Protestantism, the Black church, and being born-again.
She was quoted as saying: "I have church with myself: I have church walking down the street. I believe in the God force that lives inside all of us, and once you tap into that, you can do anything." She also stated, "Doubt means don't. When you don't know what to do, do nothing until you do know what to do. Because the doubt is your inner voice or the voice of God or whatever you choose to call it. It is your instinct trying to tell you something is off. That's how I have found myself to be led spiritually, because that's your spiritual voice saying to you, 'let's think about it.' So when you don't know what to do, do nothing."
Winfrey was called "arguably the world's most powerful woman" by CNN and Time.com, "arguably the most influential woman in the world" by The American Spectator, "one of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th Century" and "one of the most influential people" from 2004 to 2011 by TIME. Winfrey is the only person in the world to have appeared in the latter list on ten occasions.
At the end of the 20th century, Life listed Winfrey as both the most influential woman and the most influential black person of her generation, and in a cover story profile the magazine called her "America's most powerful woman". In 2007, USA Today ranked Winfrey as the most influential woman and most influential black person of the previous quarter-century. Ladies Home Journal also ranked Winfrey number one in their list of the most powerful women in America and Senator Barack Obama has said she "may be the most influential woman in the country". In 1998, Winfrey became the first woman and first African American to top Entertainment Weekly's list of the 101 most powerful people in the entertainment industry. Forbes named her the world's most powerful celebrity in 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2013.
As chairman of Harpo Inc., she was named the most powerful woman in entertainment by The Hollywood Reporter in 2008. She has been listed as one of the most powerful 100 women in the world by Forbes, ranking 14th in 2014. In 2010, Life magazine named Winfrey one of the 100 people who changed the world, alongside such luminaries as Jesus Christ, Elvis Presley, and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Winfrey was the only living woman to make the list.
Columnist Maureen Dowd seems to agree with such assessments: "She is the top alpha female in this country. She has more credibility than the president. Other successful women, such as Hillary Clinton and Martha Stewart, had to be publicly slapped down before they could move forward. Even Condi has had to play the protegé with Bush. None of this happened to Oprah – she is a straight ahead success story. Vanity Fair wrote: "Oprah Winfrey arguably has more influence on the culture than any university president, politician, or religious leader, except perhaps the Pope. Bill O'Reilly said: "this is a woman that came from nothing to rise up to be the most powerful woman, I think, in the world. I think Oprah Winfrey is the most powerful woman in the world, not just in America. That's – anybody who goes on her program immediately benefits through the roof. I mean, she has a loyal following; she has credibility; she has talent; and she's done it on her own to become fabulously wealthy and fabulously powerful."
In 2005, Winfrey was named the greatest woman in American history as part of a public poll as part of The Greatest American. She was ranked No. 9 overall on the list of greatest Americans. However, polls estimating Winfrey's personal popularity have been inconsistent. A November 2003 Gallup poll estimated that 73% of American adults had a favorable view of Winfrey. Another Gallup poll in January 2007 estimated the figure at 74%, although it dropped to 66% when Gallup conducted the same poll in October 2007. A December 2007 Fox News poll put the figure at 55%. According to Gallup's annual most admired poll, Americans consistently rank Winfrey as one of the most admired women in the world. Her highest rating came in 2007 when she was statistically tied with Hillary Clinton for first place. In a list compiled by the British magazine New Statesman in September 2010, she was voted 38th in the list of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures 2010".
The Wall Street Journal coined the term "Oprahfication", meaning public confession as a form of therapy. By confessing intimate details about her weight problems, tumultuous love life, and sexual abuse, and crying alongside her guests, Winfrey has been credited by Time magazine with creating a new form of media communication known as "rapport talk" as distinguished from the "report talk" of Phil Donahue: "Winfrey saw television's power to blend public and private; while it links strangers and conveys information over public airwaves, TV is most often viewed in the privacy of our homes. Like a family member, it sits down to meals with us and talks to us in the lonely afternoons. Grasping this paradox, ... She makes people care because she cares. That is Winfrey's genius, and will be her legacy, as the changes she has wrought in the talk show continue to permeate our culture and shape our lives."
Observers have also noted the "Oprahfication" of politics such as "Oprah-style debates" and Bill Clinton being described as "the man who brought Oprah-style psychobabble and misty confessions to politics." Newsweek stated: "Every time a politician lets his lip quiver or a cable anchor 'emotes' on TV, they nod to the cult of confession that Oprah helped create.
The November 1988 Ms. observed that "in a society where fat is taboo, she made it in a medium that worships thin and celebrates a bland, white-bread prettiness of body and personality [...] But Winfrey made fat sexy, elegant – damned near gorgeous – with her drop-dead wardrobe, easy body language, and cheerful sensuality."
Mainstream acceptance of LGBT people
While Phil Donahue has been credited with pioneering the tabloid talk show genre, Winfrey's warmth, intimacy, and personal confession popularized and changed it. Her success at popularizing the tabloid talk show genre opened up a thriving industry that has included Ricki Lake, The Jenny Jones Show, and The Jerry Springer Show. Sociologists such as Vicki Abt criticized tabloid talk shows for redefining social norms. In her book Coming After Oprah: Cultural Fallout in the Age of the TV talk show, Abt warned that the media revolution that followed Winfrey's success was blurring the lines between "normal" and "deviant" behavior. In the book Freaks Talk Back, Yale sociology professor Joshua Gamson credits the tabloid talk show genre with providing much needed high impact media visibility for gay, bisexual, transsexual, and transgender (LGBT) people and doing more to make them mainstream and socially acceptable than any other development of the 20th century. In the book's editorial review, Michael Bronski wrote, "In the recent past, lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgendered people had almost no presence on television. With the invention and propagation of tabloid talk shows such as Jerry Springer, Jenny Jones, Oprah, and Geraldo, people outside the sexual mainstream now appear in living rooms across America almost every day of the week." Gamson credits the tabloid talk show with making alternative sexual orientations and identities more acceptable in mainstream society. Examples include a Time magazine article[page needed] on early 21st-century gays coming out of the closet at an increasingly younger age and on plummeting gay suicide rates. Gamson also believes that tabloid talk shows caused gays to be accepted on more traditional forms of media.
"The Oprah Effect"
The power of Winfrey's opinions and endorsement to influence public opinion, especially consumer purchasing choices, has been dubbed "the Oprah Effect". The effect has been documented or alleged in domains as diverse as book sales, beef markets, and election voting. Late in 1996, Winfrey introduced the Oprah's Book Club segment to her television show. The segment focused on new books and classics and often brought obscure novels to popular attention. The book club became such a powerful force that whenever Winfrey introduced a new book as her book-club selection, it instantly became a best-seller; for example, when she selected the classic John Steinbeck novel East of Eden, it soared to the top of the book charts. Being recognized by Winfrey often means a million additional book sales for an author. In Reading with Oprah: The Book Club that Changed America (2005), Kathleen Rooney describes Winfrey as "a serious American intellectual who pioneered the use of electronic media, specifically television and the Internet, to take reading – a decidedly non-technological and highly individual act – and highlight its social elements and uses in such a way to motivate millions of erstwhile non-readers to pick up books."
When author Jonathan Franzen's book was selected for the Book Club, he reportedly "cringed" and said selected books tend to be "schmaltzy". After James Frey's A Million Little Pieces was found to contain fabrications in 2006, Winfrey confronted him on her show over the breach of trust. In 2009, Winfrey apologized to Frey for the public confrontation. During a show about mad cow disease with Howard Lyman (aired on April 16, 1996), Winfrey said she was stopped cold from eating another burger. Texas cattlemen sued her and Lyman in early 1998 for "false defamation of perishable food" and "business disparagement", claiming that Winfrey's remarks sent cattle prices tumbling, costing beef producers $11 million. Winfrey was represented by attorney Chip Babcock and, on February 26, after a two-month trial in an Amarillo, Texas, court, a jury found Winfrey and Lyman were not liable for damages. During the lawsuit, Winfrey hired Phil McGraw's company Courtroom Sciences, Inc. to help her analyze and read the jury. Winfrey's ability to launch other successful talk shows such as Dr. Phil, The Dr. Oz Show, and Rachael Ray has also been cited as examples of "The Oprah Effect".
Matthew Baum and Angela Jamison performed an experiment testing their hypothesis, “Politically unaware individuals who consume soft news will be more likely to vote consistently than their counterparts who do not consume soft news”. In their studies, they found that low-awareness individuals who watch soft news shows, such as The Oprah Winfrey Show are 14% more likely to vote consistently than low-awareness individuals who only watch hard news.
Winfrey endorsed presidential candidate Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election, the first time she endorsed a political candidate running for office. Winfrey held a fundraiser for Obama on September 8, 2007, at her Santa Barbara estate. In December 2007, Winfrey joined Obama for a series of rallies in the early primary states of Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina. The Columbia, South Carolina, event on December 9, 2007, drew a crowd of nearly 30,000, the largest for any political event of 2007. An analysis by two economists at the University of Maryland, College Park estimated that Winfrey's endorsement was responsible for between 420,000 and 1,600,000 votes for Obama in the Democratic primary alone, based on a sample of states that did not include Texas, Michigan, North Dakota, Kansas, or Alaska. The results suggest that in the sampled states, Winfrey's endorsement was responsible for the difference in the popular vote between Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. The governor of Illinois, Rod Blagojevich, reported being so impressed by Winfrey's endorsement that he considered offering Winfrey Obama's vacant senate seat, describing Winfrey as "the most instrumental person in electing Barack Obama president", with "a voice larger than all 100 senators combined". Winfrey responded by stating that although she was absolutely not interested, she did feel she could be a senator.
In April 2014, Winfrey spoke for more than 20 minutes at a fundraiser in Arlington, Virginia, for Lavern Chatman, a candidate in a primary to nominate a Democratic Party candidate for election to the U.S. House of Representatives. Winfrey participated in the event even after reports had revealed that Chatman had been found liable in 2001 for her role in a scheme to defraud hundreds of District of Columbia nursing-home employees of at least $1.4 million in owed wages.
Winfrey is registered as an Independent.
In 2018, Winfrey donated $500,000 to the March for Our Lives student demonstration in favor of gun control in the United States. In early 2018, Winfrey met with Mohammad bin Salman, the crown prince and de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia.
In 2000, she was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. In 2002, Christianity Today published an article called "The Church of O" in which they concluded that Winfrey had emerged as an influential spiritual leader. "Since 1994, when she abandoned traditional talk-show fare for more edifying content, and 1998, when she began 'Change Your Life TV', Oprah's most significant role has become that of a spiritual leader. To her audience of more than 22 million mostly female viewers, she has become a postmodern priestess—an icon of church-free spirituality." The sentiment was echoed by Marcia Z. Nelson in her book The Gospel According to Oprah. Since the mid-1990s, Winfrey's show has emphasized uplifting and inspirational topics and themes and some viewers say the show has motivated them to perform acts of altruism such as helping Congolese women and building an orphanage. A scientific study by psychological scientists at the University of Cambridge, University of Plymouth, and University of California used an uplifting clip from The Oprah Winfrey Show in an experiment that discovered that watching the 'uplifting' clip caused subjects to become twice as helpful as subjects assigned to watch a British comedy or nature documentary.
In 1998, Winfrey began an ongoing conversation with Gary Zukav, an American spiritual teacher, who appeared on her television show 35 times. Winfrey has said she keeps a copy of Zukav's The Seat of the Soul at her bedside, a book that she says is one of her all-time favorites.
On the season premiere of Winfrey's 13th season, Roseanne Barr told Winfrey "you're the African Mother Goddess of us all" inspiring much enthusiasm from the studio audience. The animated series Futurama alluded to her spiritual influence by suggesting that "Oprahism" is a mainstream religion in 3000 AD. Twelve days after the September 11 attacks, New York mayor Rudy Giuliani asked Winfrey to serve as host of a Prayer for America service at New York City's Yankee Stadium, which was attended by former president Bill Clinton and New York senator Hillary Clinton. Leading up to the U.S.-led 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, less than a month after the September 11 attacks, Winfrey aired a controversial show called "Islam 101" in which she portrayed Islam as a religion of peace, calling it "the most misunderstood of the three major religions". In 2002, George W. Bush invited Winfrey to join a US delegation that included adviser Karen Hughes and Condoleezza Rice, planning to go to Afghanistan to celebrate the return of Afghan girls to school. The "Oprah strategy" was designed to portray the War on Terror in a positive light; however, when Winfrey refused to participate, the trip was postponed.
Leading up to the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, Winfrey's show received criticism for allegedly having an anti-war bias. Ben Shapiro of Townhall.com wrote: "Oprah Winfrey is the most powerful woman in America. She decides what makes The New York Times Best Seller lists. Her touchy-feely style sucks in audiences at the rate of 14 million viewers per day. But Oprah is far more than a cultural force, she's a dangerous political force as well, a woman with unpredictable and mercurial attitudes toward the major issues of the day." In 2006, Winfrey recalled such controversies: "I once did a show titled Is War the Only Answer? In the history of my career, I've never received more hate mail – like 'Go back to Africa' hate mail. I was accused of being un-American for even raising the question." Filmmaker Michael Moore came to Winfrey's defense, praising her for showing antiwar footage no other media would show and begging her to run for president.
A February 2003 series, in which Winfrey showed clips from people all over the world asking America not to go to war, was interrupted in several East Coast markets by network broadcasts of a press conference in which President George W. Bush and Colin Powell summarized the case for war.
In 2007, Winfrey began to endorse the self-help program The Secret. The Secret claims that people can change their lives through positive thoughts or 'vibrations', which will then cause them to attract more positive vibrations that result in good things happening to them. Peter Birkenhead of Salon magazine argued that this idea is pseudoscience and psychologically damaging, as it trivializes important decisions and promotes a quick-fix material culture, and suggests Winfrey's promotion of it is irresponsible given her influence. In 2007, skeptic and magician James Randi accused Winfrey of being deliberately deceptive and uncritical in how she handles paranormal claims on her show. In 2008, Winfrey endorsed author and spiritual teacher Eckhart Tolle and his book, A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose, which sold several million extra copies after being selected for her book club. During a Webinar class, in which she promoted the book, Winfrey stated "God is a feeling experience and not a believing experience. If your religion is a believing experience [...] then that's not truly God." Frank Pastore, a Christian radio talk show host on KKLA, was among the many Christian leaders who criticized Winfrey's views, saying "if she's a Christian, she's an ignorant one because Christianity is incompatible with New Age thought."
Winfrey was named as the 2008 Person of the Year by animal-rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) for using her fame and listening audience to help the less fortunate, including animals. PETA praised Winfrey for using her talk show to uncover horrific cases of cruelty to animals in puppy mills and on factory farms, and Winfrey even used the show to highlight the cruelty-free vegan diet that she tried.
In 2009, Winfrey filmed a series of interviews in Denmark highlighting its citizens as the happiest people in the world. In 2010, Bill O'Reilly of Fox News criticized these shows for promoting a left-wing society. Following the launch of the Super Soul Sunday and SuperSoul Sessions programs on Harpo Productions' SuperSoul TV, in 2016 Winfrey selected 100 people for the SuperSoul 100' list of "innovators and visionaries who are aligned on a mission to move humanity forward."
The viewership for The Oprah Winfrey Show was highest during the 1991–92 season, when about 13.1 million U.S. viewers were watching each day. By 2003, ratings declined to 7.4 million daily viewers. Ratings briefly rebounded to approximately 9 million in 2005 and then declined again to around 7.3 million viewers in 2008, though it remained the highest rated talk show.
In 2008, Winfrey's show was airing in 140 countries internationally and seen by an estimated 46 million people in the US weekly. According to the Harris poll, Winfrey was America's favorite television personality in 1998, 2000, 2002–06, and 2009. Winfrey was especially popular among women, Democrats, political moderates, Baby Boomers, Generation X, Southern Americans, and East Coast Americans.
Outside the U.S., Winfrey has become increasingly popular in the Arab world. The Wall Street Journal reported in 2007 that MBC 4, an Arab satellite channel, centered its entire programming around reruns of her show because it was drawing record numbers of female viewers in Saudi Arabia. In 2008, The New York Times reported that The Oprah Winfrey Show, with Arabic subtitles, was broadcast twice each weekday on MBC 4. Winfrey's modest dress, combined with her attitude of triumph over adversity and abuse has caused some women in Saudi Arabia to idealize her.
In 2004, Winfrey became the first black person to rank among the 50 most generous Americans and she remained among the top 50 until 2010. By 2012, she had given away about $400 million to educational causes.
As of 2012, Winfrey had also given over 400 scholarships to Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia. Winfrey was the recipient of the first Bob Hope Humanitarian Award at the 2002 Emmy Awards for services to television and film. To celebrate two decades on national TV, and to thank her employees for their hard work, Winfrey took her staff and their families (1,065 people in total) on vacation to Hawaii in the summer of 2006.
In 2013, Winfrey donated $12 million to the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture. President Barack Obama awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom later that same year.
Oprah's Angel Network
In 1998, Winfrey created the Oprah's Angel Network, a charity that supported charitable projects and provided grants to nonprofit organizations around the world. Oprah's Angel Network raised more than $80,000,000 ($1 million of which was donated by Jon Bon Jovi). Winfrey personally covered all administrative costs associated with the charity, so 100% of all funds raised went to charity programs. In May 2010, with Oprah's show ending, the charity stopped accepting donations and was shut down.
In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, Oprah created the Oprah Angel Network Katrina registry which raised more than $11 million for relief efforts. Winfrey personally gave $10 million to the cause. Homes were built in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama before the one-year anniversary of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
In 2004, Winfrey and her team filmed an episode of her show, Oprah's Christmas Kindness, in which Winfrey travelled to South Africa to bring attention to the plight of young children affected by poverty and AIDS. During the 21-day trip, Winfrey and her crew visited schools and orphanages in poverty-stricken areas, and distributed Christmas presents to 50,000 children, with dolls for the girls and soccer balls for the boys, and school supplies. Throughout the show, Winfrey appealed to viewers to donate money to Oprah's Angel Network for poor and AIDS-affected children in Africa. From that show alone, viewers around the world donated over $7,000,000. Winfrey invested $40 million and some of her time establishing the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls in Henley on Klip south of Johannesburg, South Africa. The school set over 22 acres, opened in January 2007 with an enrollment of 150 pupils (increasing to 450) and features state-of-the-art classrooms, computer and science laboratories, a library, theatre, and beauty salon. Nelson Mandela praised Winfrey for overcoming her own disadvantaged youth to become a benefactor for others. Critics considered the school elitist and unnecessarily luxurious. Winfrey rejected the claims, saying: "If you are surrounded by beautiful things and wonderful teachers who inspire you, that beauty brings out the beauty in you." Winfrey, who has no surviving biological children, described maternal feelings towards the girls at Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls. Winfrey teaches a class at the school via satellite.
|1986||Saturday Night Live||Herself (host)||Episode: "Oprah Winfrey/Joe Jackson"|
|1986–2011||The Oprah Winfrey Show||Herself||Television talk show|
|1987||Throw Momma from the Train||Film|
|1990||Gabriel's Fire||Episode: "Tis the Season"|
|1992||The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air||Episode: "A Night at the Oprah"|
|1995||All-American Girl||Episode: "A Night at the Oprah"|
|1999||Home Improvement||Episode: "Home Alone"|
|The Hughleys||Episode: "Milsap Moves Up"|
|2005||Desperate Housewives: Oprah Winfrey Is the New Neighbor||Herself, Karen Stouffer||Segment for The Oprah Winfrey Show, aired February 3, 2005|
|2008||30 Rock||Herself/Pam||Episode: "Believe in the Stars"|
|2011–18||Oprah's Master Class||Herself||OWN reality show|
|2011–14||Oprah's Lifeclass||OWN self-help show|
|2011–present||Super Soul Sunday||OWN spirituality show|
|2012–15||Oprah Prime||OWN interview show|
|2012–17||Oprah: Where Are They Now?||OWN reality show|
|2019||A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood||Archive footage|
|2019–present||Oprah's Book Club||Apple TV+ book club show|
|2020–present||Oprah Talks COVID-19||Apple TV+ interview show|
|2020–present||The Oprah Conversation||Apple TV+ talk show|
As producer only
- 1989 – The Oprah Winfrey Show (supervising producer – 8 episodes, 1989–2011)
- 1989 – The Women of Brewster Place (TV miniseries) (executive producer)
- 1992 – Nine (TV documentary) (executive producer)
- 1992 – Overexposed (TV movie) (executive producer)
- 1993 – ABC Afterschool Special (TV series) (producer – 1 episode "Shades of a Single Protein") (producer)
- 1993 – Michael Jackson Talks to... Oprah Live (TV special) (executive producer)
- 1997 – Before Women Had Wings (TV movie) (producer)
- 1998 – The Wedding (TV miniseries) (executive producer)
- 1998 – Beloved (producer)
- 1998 – David and Lisa (TV movie) (executive producer)
- 1999 – Tuesdays with Morrie (TV movie) (executive producer)
- 2001 – Amy & Isabelle (TV movie) (executive producer, producer)
- 2002 – Oprah After the Show (TV series) (executive producer)
- 2005 – Their Eyes Were Watching God (TV movie) (executive producer)
- 2006 – Legends Ball (TV documentary) (executive producer)
- 2007 – Oprah's Big Give (TV series) (executive producer)
- 2007 – The Oprah Winfrey Oscar Special (TV movie) (executive producer)
- 2007 – Building a Dream: The Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy (TV documentary) (executive producer)
- 2007 – Oprah Winfrey Presents: Mitch Albom's For One More Day (TV movie) (executive producer)
- 2007 – The Great Debaters (producer)
- 2009 – The Dr. Oz Show (TV series) (executive producer)
- 2009 – Precious (executive producer)
- 2009 – Christmas at the White House: An Oprah Primetime Special (TV special) (executive producer)
- 2010 – The Oprah Winfrey Oscar Special (TV movie) (executive producer)
- 2011 – Your OWN Show (TV series) (executive producer)
- 2011 – Extraordinary Mom (TV documentary) (executive producer)
- 2011 – Serving Life (TV documentary) (executive producer)
- 2014 – The Hundred-Foot Journey (producer)
- 2014 – Selma (producer)
- 2016–present – Queen Sugar (co-creator and executive producer)
- 2016–present – Greenleaf (executive producer)
- 2017 – The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (TV movie) (executive producer)
- 2018 – Love Is (executive producer)
- 2019 – When They See Us (executive producer)
- 2019 – Oprah Winfrey Presents: After Neverland (executive producer)
- Untitled Richard Pryor Biopic (executive producer)
- 2020 - The Water Man (executive producer)
By Oprah Winfrey
- Winfrey, Oprah (1996). The Uncommon Wisdom of Oprah Winfrey: A Portrait in Her Own Words
- Winfrey, Oprah (1998). Journey to Beloved (Photography by Ken Regan)
- Winfrey, Oprah (1998). Make the Connection: Ten Steps to a Better Body and a Better Life (co-authored with Bob Greene)
- Winfrey, Oprah (2000). Oprah Winfrey: The Soul and Spirit of a Superstar
- Winfrey, Oprah (2014). What I Know for Sure
- Winfrey, Oprah (2016). Mr. or Ms. Just Right (co-authored with B. Grace)
- Winfrey, Oprah (2017). Food, Health and Happiness
- Winfrey, Oprah (2017). The Wisdom of Sundays: Life-Changing Insights from Super Soul Conversations
- Winfrey, Oprah (2017). The Wisdom Journal: The Companion to The Wisdom of Sundays
- Winfrey, Oprah (2019). The Path Made Clear: Discovering Your Life's Direction and Purpose
About Oprah Winfrey
- "Oprah Winfrey Biography and Interview". achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
Winfrey has said in interviews that 'my name had been chosen from the Bible. My Aunt Ida had chosen the name, but nobody really knew how to spell it, so it went down as "Orpah" on my birth certificate, but people didn't know how to pronounce it, so they put the "P" before the "R" in every place else other than the birth certificate. On the birth certificate it is Orpah, but then it got translated to Oprah, so here we are.'
- "#184 Oprah Winfrey". Forbes. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- "Oprah Winfrey in Melbourne for Australian tour 2015 spreads a message of love, reveals lost child". News.com.au. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "Oprah Winfrey signs with King World Productions for new three-year contract to continue as host and producer of "The Oprah Winfrey Show" through 2010–2011" (Press release). King World Productions. August 4, 2004. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved September 24, 2009.
- Oswald, Brad (January 26, 2010). "Yes, she's Queen of all Media, but to Discovery, she's Life itself". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Denenberg, Dennis; Roscoe, Lorraine (September 1, 2016). 50 American Heroes Every Kid Should Meet (2nd Revised ed.). Millbrook Press. ISBN 9781512413298.
- Miller, Matthew (May 6, 2009). "The Wealthiest Black Americans". Forbes. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Nsehe, Mfonobong. "The Black Billionaires 2015". Forbes.
- "Biography.com". Biography.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Oprah Winfrey Debuts as First African-American On BusinessWeek's Annual Ranking of 'Americas Top Philanthropists'" (Press release). Urban Mecca. November 19, 2004. Archived from the original on November 20, 2004. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Meldrum Henley-on-Klip, Andrew (January 3, 2007). "'Their story is my story' Oprah opens $40m school for South African girls". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- "The most influential US liberals: 1–20". The Daily Telegraph. London. October 31, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- Mowbray, Nicole (March 2, 2003). "Oprah's path to power". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "#562 Oprah Winfrey". Forbes Special Report: The World's Billionaires (2006). October 2006. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Tannen, Deborah (June 8, 1998). "The TIME 100: Oprah Winfrey". Time. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "Coming After Oprah" (Press release). Dr. Leonard Mustazza. Archived from the original on June 25, 2003. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "Winfrey, Oprah". National Women's Hall of Fame. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Tacopino, Joe (January 25, 2010). "Oprah, Glenn Beck are America's favorite TV personalities: poll". Daily News. New York. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Chapman, Roger (2010). Culture wars: an encyclopedia of issues, viewpoints, and voices. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 619–620. ISBN 978-0-7656-1761-3. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Mandela, Nelson (May 3, 2007). "Oprah Winfrey". The TIME 100. Retrieved February 1, 2008.
- Steven, By (August 6, 2008). "So Much for One Person, One Vote – Freakonomics Blog". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
- Slack, Megan (November 20, 2013). "President Obama Honors Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- "Oprah Winfrey Receives Honorary Degree at Harvard, Tells Graduates to Max Out Your Humanity". E!. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Jarmul, David. "Oprah Winfrey Urges Duke Graduates to Help Others Move to 'Higher Ground'". Duke Tuday. Duke University Office of News & Communications. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Winfrey has said in interviews that "my name had been chosen from the Bible. My Aunt Ida had chosen the name, but nobody really knew how to spell it, so it went down as 'Orpah' on my birth certificate, but people didn't know how to pronounce it, so they put the 'P' before the 'R' in every place else other than the birth certificate. On the birth certificate it is Orpah, but then it got translated to Oprah, so here we are." "Oprah Winfrey Interview". Academy of Achievement. January 21, 1991. Archived from the original on January 19, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "You go, girl" "The Observer Profile: Oprah Winfrey", The Observer (UK), November 20, 2005.
- Nelson, Jill (December 14, 1986). "THE MAN WHO SAVED OPRAH WINFREY". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Everything to Know About Oprah Winfrey's Mother Vernita Lee". People. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "66 Fascinating Facts About Oprah Winfrey". E!. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "FOXNews.com – Poor Mississippi Farmer Claims He's Oprah's Dad". April 23, 2010. Archived from the original on April 23, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Mississippi vet claims he's Oprah's dad". April 20, 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
-  Finding Oprah's Roots: Finding Your Own, by Henry Louis Gates, page 154, at Google Books.
- "Ancestry of Oprah Winfrey". Genealogy.about.com. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Krohn, Katherine E, Oprah Winfrey: Global Media Leader (USA Today) (Krohn, 2002); ISBN 978-1-58013-571-9, pg. 9.
- Mair (1999) p. 12.
- Garson, Helen S. Oprah Winfrey: A Biography (Greenwood, 2004), ISBN 978-0-313-32339-3, p. 20.
- Mair (1999), pp. 13–14.
- Collins, Leah (January 24, 2011). "Oprah's Big Secret? She Has a Half-Sister". The Gazette. Montreal. Archived from the original on January 27, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Oldenburg, Ann. "Oprah's Secret Is Out!", USA Today, January 24, 2011. WebCitation archive.
- Lee Winfrey, "Praise from All Corners for New Talk Show Host", Syracuse Herald Journal, September 9, 1986, p. 44.
- Morgan, Thomas (March 4, 1986). "Troubled Girl's Evolution into an Oscar Nominee". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- Garson, Helen S. Oprah Winfrey: A Biography, (Greenwood, 2004), ISBN 978-0-313-32339-3, p. 22
- "Oprah Winfrey: It's good to talk". BBC News. November 20, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Oprah Winfrey". The Biography Channel. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- "Oprah Winfrey: I Was 'Devastated' by Relative's Betrayal". People. February 20, 2007. Archived from the original on September 4, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Nagle, Jeanne M. Oprah Winfrey: Profile of a Media Mogul, Rosen Publishing, 2007; p. 12.
- "Milwaukee plays supporting role in Oprah book". archive.jsonline.com. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Biography.com". Biography.com. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- White, Lionel Luciano Illuminati (August 11, 2010). Wealth Building Strategies of the Super Rich: How to Start a Family Dynasty. SPOIO Books, imprint of SPOIO Inc. ISBN 978-1-4524-0843-9.
- "Before They Were Stars". Msn.careerbuilder.com. January 22, 2010. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Lowe, Janet (January 22, 2001). Oprah Winfrey Speaks: Insights from the World's Most Influential Voice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-471-39994-0.
- "Oprah Winfrey". pageantplanet.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Cooper, Ilene (2008). Oprah Winfrey: A Twentieth-century Life. Penguin. pp. 65–71. ISBN 978-0-14-241045-5. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- Mel Novit. "Oprah: Talk Show Dynamo Treats the Audience Like a Friend", Syracuse Post-Standard, September 14, 1986, p. A9.
- "Oprah Gail Winfrey: Star born out of adversity". Hindustan Times. January 29, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- Klenke, Karin (December 13, 2017). Women in Leadership: Contextual Dynamics and Boundaries, Second Edition. Emerald Group Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78743-277-2.
- Sun, David Zurawik, The Baltimore. "From Sun Magazine: Oprah -- Built in Baltimore". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- Ebert, Roger (November 16, 2005). "How I gave Oprah her start". Roger Ebert's Journal. Chicago. Retrieved January 15, 2017. Formerly appeared as Ebert, Roger (November 16, 2005). "How I gave Oprah her start". Chicago Sun-Times (online ed.). Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Meredith Vieira, host (July 19, 2006). Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. Buena Vista Television.
- Thomas, Mike. "Oprah's First Season: An Oral History". Chicago magazine. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Oprah Winfrey: Lady with a Calling", Time, August 8, 1988. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- Mair, George (2001) p. 97
- "Oprah once gave an entire audience free cars – but it turns out there was a hidden cost". The Independent. February 13, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
- Benedictus, Leo (September 14, 2010). "Oprah surprises her audience with a trip to Australia – on a plane flown by John Travolta". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
- Mathis-Lilley, Ben (January 8, 2018). "Oprah's Record of Promoting Charlatans Should Perhaps Give Us Pause About Her Impending Presidency." Slate. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
- Jula, Megan (January 10, 2018). "How Oprah Helped Spread Anti-Vaccine Pseudoscience." Mother Jones. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
- "What is OWN". Oprah.com. Archived from the original on May 14, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "This Is It: Oprah's Final Show". etonline.com. Archived from the original on May 28, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- "Oprah Winfrey to join 60 Minutes as Special Contributor" NBC News, January 31, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
- Johnson, Steve (July 20, 2018). "Smithsonian's 'Watching Oprah' a powerful reminder of why we miss her". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "Oprah Talks Apple Plans, '60 Minutes' Exit, 'Leaving Neverland' Backlash and Mayor Pete "Buttabeep, Buttaboop"". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Reuters (June 16, 2018). "Apple signs up Oprah Winfrey in $1bn programming push". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- Respers France, Lisa (July 28, 2020). "Oprah Winfrey launching new show on Apple TV+". CNN. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Company, Johnson Publishing (March 8, 1993). "Alex Haley's 'Queen' Lifts CBS To No. 1". Jet: 37. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Huff, Richard; Christena Coleman (December 3, 2005). "It's Win-Winfrey situation for Dave as ratings soar". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on December 5, 2005. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
- "Letterman to Appear on 'Oprah'". The Washington Post. Associated Press. August 29, 2007. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- "Ice Cube Says Oprah Has 'a Problem With Hip-Hop" Archived September 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Fox News Channel. May 28, 2006. Retrieved September 17, 2010
- Bercovici, Jeff (September 7, 2008). "Oprah and Sarah: Anatomy of a Non-troversy". Portfolio.com. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Friedman, Emily (September 5, 2008). "Is Oprah Biased? Host Won't Interview Palin". ABC News. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
- Poniewozik, James (October 27, 1998). "Oprah Winfrey, Journalist?". Salon. Archived from the original on April 12, 2000. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- de Moraes, Lisa (February 4, 2006). "Dave Chappelle, Rematerializing Guy". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- Vogue October 1998
- Frankel, Daniel (December 16, 2008). "Oprah Winfrey pacts with HBO". Variety.
- "Why A Wrinkle in Time Will Change Hollywood". Time. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- Russian, Ale. "John Legend Ventures in VR with Oprah Winfrey and More in Crow: The Legend – Watch Here!", People, November 29, 2018
- Glaister, Dan (May 22, 2006). "Oprah Winfrey book deal tops Clinton's m". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Begley, Sarah (December 3, 2015). "Oprah to Publish New Memoir: The Life You Want". Time. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- Conlin, Jennifer (October 10, 2014). "The Tao of Oprah". New York Timess. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- Alter, Alexandra (December 3, 2015). "Oprah Winfrey to Release Memoir in 2017". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Schaub, Michael (June 15, 2016). "Oprah's memoir is delayed, but her cookbook is coming in January". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- Richard Pérez-Peña (November 7, 2008). "Hearst to Close O at Home, Oprah Magazine Spinoff". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Sellers, Patricia (April 8, 2002). "The Business of Being Oprah". Fortune. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Wyatt, Edward (May 26, 2008). "A Few Tremors in Oprahland". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
- "Memo Pad: Oprah Boosts Sales... AMI's New Deal... Boodro Departs..." Women's Wear Daily. February 2, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Oprah's O Mag to end regular print editions after 20 years". AP NEWS. July 27, 2020.
- Arbel, Tali; Writer, AP Technology (July 28, 2020). "Oprah's O Mag to end regular print editions after 20 years". Houston Chronicle.
- "About Oprah". Harpo, Inc. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
- Presenter: Oprah Winfrey (October 11, 2005). "The Oprah Show Captures Accused Child Molesters!". The Oprah Winfrey Show.
- "Oprah Signs XM Satellite Radio Deal". Los Angeles Times. February 10, 2006. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
- "Oprah Winfrey Net Worth – Growing Her Billion Dollar Media Empire". Capitalism. December 24, 2019. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- Mair (1999), pp. 28–29.
- Mair (1999) p. 30
- Mair (1999), p. 31.
- Mair (1999) p. 33
- Mair (1999), p. 43.
- "Oprah and John Tesh Briefly Dated, Lived Together, New Book Claims". Fox News Channel. April 12, 2010.
- Mair, George (1995). Oprah Winfrey: The Real Story. Carol Pub. Group. p. 47. ISBN 1-55972-250-9.
- Mair (1999), p. 49: "the major problem with this intense love affair arose from her lover's being married, with no plans to leave his wife".
- Mair (1999), p. 49.
- Mair (1999), p. 50.
- "Oprah reveals on her show she smoked crack cocaine during her 20s". Jet. January 30, 1995. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2008. Archived at FindArticles in 2004.
- Randolph L. Cook v Oprah Winfrey, 7th FindLaw 973403 (7th Cir. April 8, 1998).
- "Representative Matters". Jackson Walker L.L.P. Archived from the original on October 19, 2003. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: Stedman Stole Oprah From Me, Secret Lover Tells Radar". radaronline.com. February 17, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "A Look Into the Personal Life of Oprah Winfrey". Oprah.about.com. November 14, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Lehner, Marla (July 18, 2006). "Oprah: Gayle and I Are Not Gay". People. Archived from the original on April 21, 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Hernandez, Greg (May 2004). "Balancing Act". Orange Coast Magazine: 55.
- "ABC News: Shriver Struggles With Kennedy Legacy". ABC News. October 23, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Winfrey, Oprah. "Oprah's cut with Maya Angelou". Oprah.com. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
- Article from USA Today. Maya Angelou official website. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Teague Beckwith, Ryan (January 9, 2018). "An Oprah 2020 Campaign Could Tarnish Her Golden Image". Time. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- Fletcher, Dan (May 25, 2010). "7. Oprah The Billionaire". Time. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Mills, Marja (March 7, 2001). "Oprah College Course". Race Matters. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- July, Reuters (July 25, 2007). "Oprah tops list of highest paid TV stars". Canada.com (Reuters). Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Forbes "#1 Oprah Winfrey"". Forbes. June 11, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- "Oprah Winfrey". Forbes. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Forbes magazine March 26, 2007, p. 160, says there are only 10 self-made women billionaires in the world and Winfrey is the richest of the 4 listed as U.S. billionaires.
- Oprah Winfrey and the Glamour of Misery: An Essay on Popular Culture by Eva Illou, THE ROLE OF THE BLACK CHURCH
- Oprah Winfrey: Global Media Leader by Katherine E. Krohn, pg. 14
- Oprah Winfrey: A Biography, Second Edition by Helen S. Garson, pg. 34
- Lowe, Janet (January 22, 2001). Oprah Winfrey Speaks: Insights from the World's Most Influential Voice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-471-39994-0.
- Oprah on Why "Doubt Means Don't". The Oprah Winfrey Show. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- "2001 Global Influentials: 19. Oprah Winfrey". Time. March 12, 2001. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Tamny, John. "The American Spectator". Spectator.org. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Obama, Michelle (April 30, 2009). Time http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1733748_1733756_1735241,00.html. Retrieved August 26, 2010. Missing or empty
- "The 50 Most Influential Boomers". Life. Archived from the original on January 27, 2007. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
- USA Today. September 3, 2007 https://www.usatoday.com/news/top25-influential.htm?loc=interstitialskip. Retrieved August 26, 2010. Missing or empty
- "Interview With Barack Obama". Larry King Live. CNN. October 19, 2006. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
- "Oprah Winfrey named most powerful person in entertainment industry". Jet. 1998. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008.
- "Oprah Tops Powerful Celebs List". CBS News. Associated Press. June 17, 2005. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "Oprah 'most powerful celebrity'". BBC News. June 14, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- "Oprah Back Atop the Forbes Celebrity 100 List". TV Guide.
- "Oprah Winfrey, célébrité la plus puissante de l'année 2013". Le Figaro. June 26, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Dobuzinskis, Alex; Serjeant, Jill (December 7, 2008). "Oprah named entertainment's most powerful woman". Reuters. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "The world's 100 most powerful women". Forbes. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- Life: "100 people who changed the world", August 20, 2010.
- Mackensie, Susie (March 11, 2006). "Woman of mass derision". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Harrow, Susan. "Inside the Book... The Ultimate Guide to Getting Booked on Oprah". PRSecrets.com. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Westwood One's The Radio Factor with Bill O'Reilly, October 17, 2006.
- Panagopoulos, Costas. "Obama supporter Oprah takes a big dive – Costas Panagopoulos". Politico. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
- "Obama, Hillary Clinton Share "Most Admired" Billing". Gallup.com. December 26, 2008. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- "Clinton Closes Gap with Bush As Nation's 'Most Admired Man'". CNN. December 26, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "38. Oprah Winfrey – 50 People Who Matter 2010 |". New Statesman. UK. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- McDougal, Dennis (November 8, 1989). "Winfrey accepted into Hall of Fame". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
- "The Church of O", Christianity Today April 1, 2002. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "The TV Host", Time, June 8, 1998. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- "Clinton as TV host? The thought doesn't rate". The Sydney Morning Herald. May 7, 2002.
- Darman, Jonathan. "The Story Behind Oprah's Riveting Show – Newsweek National News". MSNBC. Archived from the original on June 18, 2006. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Kelley, Kitty. Oprah: A Biography (Crown Archetype, New York, 2010); ISBN 978-0-307-39486-6.
- "An interview and excerpt from Freaks Talk Back". University of Chicago Press. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Gamson, Joshua (1999) University Of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-28065-9
- Quintanilla, Carlos. "The Oprah Effect". CNBC. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Oprah's Book Club Archive". Oprah.com. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Oprah's Book Club to Add Contemporary Writers" The New York Times article. September 23, 2005. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Elliot, Jane. "Jonathan Franzen and Oprah". Bitchmagazine.org. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Oprah Apologizes to Author James Frey". TV Guide. Retrieved May 14, 2009.
- "Oprah: 'Free speech rocks'". CNN. February 26, 1998. Archived from the original on October 6, 2009.
- Snyder, Susan; Jeremy Roebuck (June 9, 2012). "Sandusky jury has strong Penn State ties". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
- "Oprah Winfrey Net Worth – From Abused Little Girl to a Powerful Woman", NetWorthCity.com. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- "'The Oprah Effect' – How Oprah's Endorsement Helps Companies". Access Hollywood. May 27, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Baum, Matthew A.; Jamison, Angela S. (2006). "The Oprah Effect: How Soft News Helps Inattentive Citizens Vote Consistently". The Journal of Politics. 68 (4): 946–959. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2508.2006.00482.x.
- "Can the Oprah Effect Make Obama President?". ABC News. September 6, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "The Oprah Effect on Obama". ABC News. August 6, 2008. Archived from the original on October 11, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "The Oprah Effect: One Million Votes, Study Says". HuffPost. August 8, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Zeleny, Jeff (May 3, 2007). "Oprah Endorses Obama". The New York Times.
- Anburajan, Aswini (December 9, 2007). "About 30,000 see Obama-Oprah In SC". NBC News. Archived from the original on December 10, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "The Role of Celebrity Endorsements in Politics: Oprah, Obama, and the 2008 Democratic Primary" (PDF). Retrieved January 8, 2018.
- "Blagojevich on 'Glenn Beck'". Fox News Channel. January 29, 2009. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "I Think I Could Be Senator Too". HuffPost. January 26, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- (1) Andrews, Helena; Heil, Emily (April 7, 2014). "Oprah attends fundraiser for Arlington candidate Lavern Chatman". The Washington Post. The Reliable Source. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
(2) "Lavern J. Chapman v. James L. Lawler" (PDF). District of Columbia Court of Appeals. December 4, 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2014. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- "Knock Knock — It's Oprah! Winfrey Campaigns for Stacey Abrams as Mogul Says She Won't Run in 2020". People.
- "Stumping for Abrams, Oprah makes impassioned plea for turnout". CNN.
- "Oprah Winfrey says if you don't vote, you are 'dishonoring your family' at Stacey Abrams rally". USA Today.
- Gonzalez, Sandra (February 21, 2018). "Oprah, Steven Spielberg also donating to March For Our Lives, following George Clooney's pledge". CNN. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman toured Hollywood, Harvard and Silicon Valley on US visit". The Independent. April 7, 2018.
- "NAACP Spingarn Medal". Naacp.org. Archived from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- "Books – Marcia Z. Nelson: 'The Gospel According to Oprah'". Cbn.com. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "From 'Oprah' to Building a Sisterhood in Congo", The New York Times. February 3, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- "A positive 'elevating' emotion". The Times of India. February 4, 2010. Archived from the original on February 14, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Emaxhealth.com". Emaxhealth.com. February 4, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Zukav Rides Oprah's Spiritual Wave". Publishers Weekly. October 26, 1998.
- "Forging a Spiritual Relationship". Harpo Productions. January 24, 2007.
- Pinsky, Mark (2007) . The Gospel According to the Simpsons. Bigger and possibly even Better! edition. Gardners Books. pp. 229–235. ISBN 978-0-664-23265-8.
- Anderson, Porter (September 23, 2011). "Prayer service: 'We shall not be moved'". CNN. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Dreher, Rod (October 8, 2001). "Islam According to Oprah: Is Oprah Winfrey a threat to national security?". National Review. Archived from the original on May 28, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "No thanks, Oprah tells Bush". News24. March 30, 2002. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Shapiro, Ben (March 19, 2003). "The Oprah schnook club". Townhall.com.
- O, The Oprah Magazine, October 2006 pg. 367
- Moore (2003) pg. 87
- Moore (2003) pp. 255–58
- Fletcher, Dan (November 13, 2009). Time http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1939460_1939452_1939457,00.html. Retrieved August 26, 2010. Missing or empty
- "President Bush: "World Can Rise to This Moment"" (Press release). Office of the White House Press Secretary. February 6, 2003. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Birkenhead, Peter. Oprah's ugly secret, Salon Life, March 5, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- Randi, James (March 2, 2007). "An Oprah Fiasco". Swift. Randi.org. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Oprah's 'Church' Video Draws Over 5 Million to YouTube". The Christian Post. April 23, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
- The Times of India. December 20, 2008 http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/ET_Cetera/Oprah_Winfrey_named_PETAs_Person_of_the_Year/articleshow/3867001.cms. Retrieved August 26, 2010. Missing or empty
- "Foxnews.com". Fox News Channel. January 15, 2010. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Meet the SuperSoul100: The World's Biggest Trailblazers in One Room". O Magazine. August 1, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
the SuperSoul 100—innovators and visionaries who are aligned on a mission to move humanity forward
- "THE COMPLETE LIST: A COLLECTION OF 100 AWAKENED LEADERS WHO ARE USING THEIR VOICES AND TALENT TO ELEVATE HUMANITY". supersoul.tv. Harpo Productions. 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- "Oprah Winfrey, Forest Whitaker Talk Lee Daniels' The Butler, Racism, and the N-word". Parade. July 31, 2013.
- "Jane Pauley to Go Head-to-Head With Oprah". Fox News Channel. December 1, 2011. Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
- Cockcroft, Lucy (May 27, 2008). "Oprah Winfrey Show suffers ratings slump – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Oprah throws party for U.S. Olympic medalists". Reuters. September 3, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- MacIntyre, James (September 29, 2007). "Oprah earns £128m to lead TV earnings". The Independent. UK. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Oprah Regains Her Position as America's Favorite Television Personality" (PDF). Harris Interactive. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 17, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- NewsMax, May 2007, p. 65.
- Zoepf, Katherine (September 18, 2008). "Dammam Journal – Saudi Women Find an Unlikely Role Model – Oprah". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Online Extra: A Talk with Oprah Winfrey". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. November 28, 2004. Archived from the original on August 30, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Top 50 2010, January 11, 2012.
- O'Connor, Clare. "The Education Of Oprah Winfrey: How She Saved Her South African School". Forbes.
- Boykin, Keith (September 19, 2006). "Oprah's Back". keithboykin.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2006. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "Oprah Winfrey donates $12 million to Smithsonian". The Washington Post. June 12, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Jackson, David (November 20, 2013). "Obama awards Medal of Freedom to Clinton, Oprah, others". USA Today. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- "Oprah Winfrey's Angel Network Charity To Close Down". HuffPost. May 26, 2010. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- "How to Help – Thank You to Our Donors". Opera's Angel Network. May 24, 2010. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Mirabella, Linda. "Cash Donations, Benefit Concerts, Celebrity Auctions and Celebrity Volunteers to Benefit Victims of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita". LAStarz. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "Building Oprah Katrina Homes". Oprah.com. January 15, 2006. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Christmas Kindness". Harpo Productions. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- McLaren, Elsa (January 2, 2007). "Oprah Winfrey opens school for poor South African girls". The Times. London.
- Samuels, Allison (January 8, 2007). "Oprah goes to school". Newsweek. Archived from the original on September 13, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- Jeff Koinange (January 8, 2007). "CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Stanhope, Kate (May 2, 2016). "Oprah Winfrey to Star in HBO Films' 'The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- "Studios' 2017 Forecast: Big Bets, Franchise Fears and Executive Intrigue". Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Lauder, Ed (July 4, 2018). "The Handmaid's Tale Season Two: Oprah Winfrey's cameo sparks celebrity debate". Express. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- "Crow: The Legend (2018)". 2018. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- Andreeva, Nellie. "Oprah Winfrey To Co-Star In & Co-Create With 'Selma' Filmmaker Ava DuVernay 'Queen Sugar' OWN Drama Series". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
- "Oprah On How Heartbreak Can Bring Joy At 'Love Is' Premiere". Vibe. June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Oprah Winfrey on Wanting to Work With Mara Brock Akil on 'Love Is'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Lee Daniels' Richard Pryor biopic to star Mike Epps". BBC News. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- N'Duka, Amanda (March 27, 2019). "David Oyelowo Sets 'The Water Man' As Feature Directorial Debut With Oprah Winfrey As EP". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
- Official website
- Oprah Winfrey at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Oprah Winfrey on IMDb
- NPR "Oprah: The Billionaire Everywoman". Audio file, video and biography. Retrieved September 17, 2010
- Works by Oprah Winfrey at Open Library
- Oprah Winfrey Video produced by Makers: Women Who Make America
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Watching Oprah – Smithsonian exhibition on the Oprah Show and Winfrey