|Place of origin||Ukraine|
|Used by||Ukrainian Navy|
|Designer||Luch Design Bureau|
|Mass||870 kg (1,920 lb)|
|Warhead weight||150 kg (330 lb)|
|Up to 300 km (190 mi)|
Neptune's design is based on the Soviet Kh-35 anti-ship missile, with substantially improved range and electronics. The system requirement was for a single missile to defeat surface warships and transport vessels with a displacement of up to 5,000 tons, either in convoys or moving individually.
According to information from open sources, the first flight samples of the cruise missile were manufactured in the second quarter of 2016. Production of advanced missile systems took place in cooperation with other Ukrainian enterprises, including Artem Luch GAhK, Kharkiv State Aircraft Manufacturing Company, Motor Sich (MS-400 turbofan engine), Pivdenne YuMZ Pivdenmash, Lviv LORTA and other radar electronics, Vyshneve ZhMZ Vizar Kyiv, Radionix (seeker), Arsenal SDP SE (navigation system) and others.
The first tests of the system were conducted on 22 March 2016, attended by Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council (NSDC) Oleksandr Turchynov. In mid-2017, Neptune missiles were tested concurrently with trials of the Vilkha missile complex. However, unlike the Vilkha, the test results and capabilities of the Neptune were not made public. According to the press service of the NSDC, the first successful flight tests of the system took place on 30 January 2018. On 17 August 2018, the missile successfully hit a target at a range of 100 kilometres (62 mi) during test firings in southern Odesa Oblast. On 6 April 2019, the missile was again successfully tested, hitting targets during tests near Odesa. According to President Petro Poroshenko, Neptune system would be delivered to the Ukrainian military in December 2019.
After the withdrawal of both the United States and the Russian Federation from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, Ukraine announced that it was considering developing intermediate-range cruise missiles. Analysts considered an extended-range Neptune missile to be a candidate for such an effort.
Ukraine signed a memorandum with Indonesia on concluding a contract for the supply of a number of Neptune missiles, first reported in December 2020. Thus, Indonesia may become the first foreign buyer of Neptune, according to Defense Express with reference to the Ukrainian special exporter State Enterprise (SE) "Progress".
On 3 April 2022, Ukrainian sources claimed that the Russian frigate Admiral Essen had been damaged by Ukrainian forces. Later, Oleksiy Arestovych, an adviser to the Office of the President of Ukraine, clarified that Admiral Essen had been hit by a Neptune missile. The Russians did not comment on the claim and the ship continued its mission as normal.
On 13 April 2022, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Ukrainian sources claimed the Russian cruiser Moskva was hit by two Neptune missiles, resulting in a fire and subsequent explosion of a shipboard ammunition store. The Russian Ministry of Defence stated, without discussing the cause, that a fire had caused munitions to explode and the crew had been fully evacuated. Russia reported the vessel as still being afloat later in the day of the fire, but Russian state media subsequently reported that she had sunk in inclement weather while being towed.
Slava-class cruisers like Moskva have been typically "known for their offensive punch, not for their defensive systems or their damage control". Moskva is one of the two largest warships to be sunk in combat since World War II, being of very similar size to ARA General Belgrano, sunk during the Falklands War.
When deployed, a Neptune coastal defence system comprises a truck-based USPU-360 mobile launcher, four missiles, a TZM-360 transport/reload vehicle, a RCP-360 command and control vehicle, and a special cargo vehicle. Czech Tatra T815-7 trucks replaced prototype KrAZ vehicles. The system is designed to operate up to 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the coastline.
A Neptune missile including rocket motor is 5.05 metres (16 ft 7 in) in length, with a cross-shaped hard wing. Neptune missiles are designed to be housed in transport and launch containers (TLC) with dimensions 5.30 by 0.60 by 0.60 metres (209 in × 24 in × 24 in). The system has a maximum range of about 300 kilometres (190 mi). A single missile weighs 870 kilograms (1,920 lb), of which 150 kilograms (330 lb) is the warhead.
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- Media related to Neptune (cruise missile) at Wikimedia Commons
- Дослідна протикорабельна ракета «Нептун» (Україна. 2016 рік)
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