RAI

Italy's national public service

Encyclopedia from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rai
TypeSocietà per azioni (S.p.A.), state-owned
IndustryMass media
Founded
  • 1924; 98 years ago (1924) (as URI)
  • 1944; 78 years ago (1944) (as RAI)
  • 1954; 68 years ago (1954) (as RAI S.p.A.)
FounderGovernment of Italy
HeadquartersRome, Italy
Area served
Italy and other neighbouring countries in the European Union, Tunisia, Switzerland, Albania, Bosnia, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino and Vatican City
Key people
  • Carlo Fuortes (CEO)
  • Marinella Soldi (Chairman)
Products
Services
RevenueIncrease 2.493 billion (2019)[1]
Decrease 191.6 million (2019)[1]
Decrease -54.6 million (2019)[1]
OwnerMinistry of Economy and Finance
Number of employees
11,635 (2014)[2]
Subsidiaries
  • Rai Way
  • Rai Pubblicità S.p.A.
  • Rai Com S.p.A.
  • Rai Cinema S.p.A.
  • 01 Distribution S.r.l.
Website

RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana[3] (Italian pronunciation: [ˈrai ˌradjoteleviˈzjoːne itaˈljaːna]; commercially styled as Rai since 2000; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane)[4] is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. RAI operates many terrestrial and subscription television channels and radio stations. It is one of the biggest broadcasters in Italy competing with Mediaset,[5] and other minor radio and television networks. RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 35.9%.[6]

RAI broadcasts are also received in surrounding countries, including Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, France and Tunisia, and elsewhere on pay television and some channels FTA across Europe including UK on the Hotbird satellite. Half of RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the remainder from the sale of advertising time.[7][8] In 1950, RAI became one of the 23 founding members of the European Broadcasting Union.

Structure

RAI is 99% owned by the Italian Government Ministry of Economy and Finance, and is the sole licensee (Concessionaria in esclusiva) of the Radio, Television and Multimedia broadcasting public service. For this reason the agreement with the Government prescribes a series of rules and guarantees that Rai must follow to ensure a fair public service to the citizens. [9]

Management and Board of Directors are elected by the ruling Parliament through the Commissione parlamentare per l'indirizzo generale e la vigilanza dei servizi radiotelevisivi (Parliamentary Commission for General address and Supervision of Radio and Television Services) every three years, in agreement with almost all Parliamentary exponents, usually following the political side of the majority and leaving some space for minor roles to minority parties exponents. [10] [11] Rai is formally a private company (although all stocks are state-owned) it's company statute precisely describes how the strict relationship with the Republic is, also ruled by different national laws (the most recent one is the 2015 "Riforma della Rai", i.e. the 2015 law n.220.), including the "Testo Unico della Radiotelevisione" (roughly Consolidated Law on Radio and Television).

Rai and broadcasting are supervised by the Commission, which rules also economics budgets and main regulations (including public service's electoral segments during electoral campaigns).

History

1924

Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) was formed in 1924 with the backing of the Marconi Company following a model adopted in other European countries. URI made its inaugural broadcast — a speech by Benito Mussolini at Teatro Costanzi — on 5 October. Regular programming began the following evening, with a quartet performing Haydn's Quartet No. 7 in A major from the Palazzo Corradi. At 21.00 CET, Ines Donarelli Viviani announced for the first time: "URI—Unione Radiofonica Italiana Rome station 1RO 425 metres wavelength. To all those who are listening our greetings, good evening".[12] Guglielmo Marconi's S.A. Radiofono—Società Italiana per le Radiocomunicazioni Circolari (Radiofono) held 85% of URI shares and Western Electric's Società Italiana Radio Audizioni Circolari (SIRAC) held the remaining 15%.

Under the provisions of Royal Decree No. 1067 of 8 February 1923, wireless broadcasting became a state monopoly under the control of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs; URI was commissioned to provide services for a minimum of six years pursuant to Royal Decree No. 2191 of 14 October 1924 "Concessione dei servizi radioauditivi circolari alla Società Anonima Unione Radiofonica Italiana".[13] However, when URI's contract expired in 1927, it was succeeded under Royal Decree Law No. 2207 of 17 November 1927 by the partially nationalised Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR), which became Radio Audizioni Italiane S.p.A. (RAI) with investment from Società Idroelettrica Piemontese (SIP) in 1944.

1940s

During the reconstruction following World War II, much of RAI's early programming was influenced by the "Reithian" style of the BBC. The emphasis was on educational content. Programs like Non è mai troppo tardi and Un viaggio al Po introduced people to what life was like in other parts of the country, at a time when most people could not afford to travel.

Over the following years the RAI made various changes to its services. It reorganised its radio stations in November 1946 into two national networks, Rete Rossa and Rete Azzurra ("Red Network" and "Blue Network"). It added the culture-based Terzo Programma in October 1950. On 1 January 1952 the Rete Rossa became the Programma Nazionale (focusing on informational content) and the Rete Azzurra became the Secondo Programma (with a greater emphasis on entertainment). The three radio channels eventually became today's Rai Radio 1, Rai Radio 2, and Rai Radio 3.

1950s

In 1954 the state-owned holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) became the sole shareholder and IRI – now renamed RAI—Radiotelevisione italiana to reflect its extended responsibilities – finally began a regular television service. On 3 January at 11.00 CET, the first RAI television announcer presented the day's schedule, which was broadcast from the service's Milan headquarters and relay stations in Turin and Rome. At 14.30, the first regular programme in Italian television history was broadcast: Arrivi e partenze, hosted by Armando Pizzo and Mike Bongiorno. The evening's entertainment was a theatre performance, L'osteria della posta, written by Carlo Goldoni. 23.15 saw the start of the day's concluding programme, La Domenica Sportiva – the first edition of a weekly series which continues to this day.[14]

2000s

RAI was originally the subsidiary of RAI Holding S.p.A. RAI Holding was absorbed into RAI as of 1 December 2004, per Article 21 of Law 112/04.

The RAI is governed by a nine-member Administrative Council. Seven of the members are elected by a committee of the Italian Parliament. The other two (one of which is the President) are nominated by the largest shareholder: the Ministry of Economic Development. The Council appoints the Director-General. The Director-General and the members of the Administrative Council are appointed for a renewable three-year term. In 2005, the government of Silvio Berlusconi proposed partial privatisation of RAI by selling 20% ownership. This proposal was very controversial, in part because Berlusconi was the head of the leading private broadcaster Mediaset. Some critics claimed that Mediaset could become the buyer and thus increase its dominant position. However, after the revelation that RAI would lose €80m ($96m, £54m) in 2006, the privatisation plan was suspended in October 2005.[15][16]

2010s

On 18 May 2010, Raisat received a major upgrade and re-branded with a new logo and a new name. It and all of the sister channels dropped the sat part from the name and became Rai YoYo, Rai 5 (formerly known as Rai Extra), Rai Premium, and Rai Movie (formerly known as Raisat Cinema).

On 11 June 2013, RAI was one of the few known European broadcasters to condemn and criticize the closure of Greece's state broadcaster ERT.

RAI is 99% owned by the Italian Government Ministry of Economy and Finance, so it is said that it broadcasts content that may politically influence people.[17][18]

Corporate identity

The Alberto Ribera logo was introduced in 1967, however, this did not have significant application except on studios and portable cameras. A second variation of the Carboni logo was introduced in 1977, which was not officially adopted but appeared in some graphics, including that of the time signal.[19]

Controversy

Political Fairness and balance between public service and commercial tv market

Rai's broadcasts content and nominees are frequently accused of political influences[20][21], depending both on the nominated management for every channel or news programme, and on the lack of meritocracy in contracts with television personalities, hosts and also tecnicians, also concerting cachets and salaries[22]. However, many people trying to underline that Rai need to balance political equity and public services with the market rules and competitors.[23]. All these issues are still pending and unsolved.

Rai's main channel are culturally considered slightly politically oriented: Rai 1 is liberal or right-centred, Rai 2 is usually more right oriented, while Rai 3 is typically considered leftist, having the majority of left oriented programmes and hosts (Fabio Fazio, Bianca Berlinguer, or the journalistic deep investigation programme "Report", famous for it's investigations over far-right scandals[24]. This issue in Italy is referred as "lottizzazione" and is yet to be solved.

Political censorship and civil rights advocacy controversies

Rai is frequently subjected to controversies and censorship accusation upon political matters, especially civil rights and LGBT issue.

The broadcaster was strongly accused in 2008 for cutting the gay love scene of the oscar-winning movie Brokeback Mountain. Rai initially apologised for the cut, explaining that the cut was due to a pre-cut edition originally planned for the prime-time slot, and wasnt corrected when airing was shifted to the late-night slot. Critics noticed that similar scenes of heterosexual lovers were never cut out before in prime-time and reinforced the accusation of homophobic censorship.[25] The company rescheduled a new uncut version of the movie, but this was aired again in an even later time slot, a choice seen as a confirmation of the accusation. Only two year later, indeed, the movie aired again with all homosexual sex and kisses cut off. Rai was forced again to apologise, accusing a "problem" with the pre-cut edition by the distribution company and a lack of fact-checking by the Rai employee.[26][27]

In 2011, the episode 125 of the German Tv Soap “Um Himmels Willen” (literally “For Heaven’s Sake”), shown in Italy since 2004, was entitled “Romeo and Romeo” and due to screen on Rai uno but was left out in order to “avoid controversy”, according to the broadcaster.[28].

In 2016 during the first clear broudcast of How to get away with murder, on the second Rai Channel, the gay kisses for one of the main character (portraited by Jack Falahee) were complitely cut off. Rai apologised again, stating that the incident was «merely the mistake of an overzealous editor».[29]. Criticism on the social media platforms was so strong that Falahee and showrunner Shonda Rhimes both tweeted against the network "inexcusable" censorshipp.[30][31][32]

In 2021 another accuse was moved against Rai by famous Italian Rapper and Chiara Ferragni's Husband Fedez. During the "Concertone del 1 Maggio" a traditional Italian TV broadcast concert in celebration of the International Workers' Day, the rapper was invited to perform and have a speech on the stage. The Rapper honored the Entertainment workers affected by the Covid-19 pandemic and spent half of his speech in support of legislation that would punish violence against women and LGBT people as hate crimes in Italy. During his speech he recalled all the political exponents' hate speech (confirmed by videos or sentenced by court) during the late years and accused Rai 3's executive of trying censoring his speech by order of "superiors" as «this is how it works.». Rai, immediately denied all accusation and Fedez leaked a recorded audio of the conversation between him and the executives, where managers and hosts (declaring their names and roles to him) tryed to censor his speech, by «asking you to adapt to a system that you probably don't get»..[33][34][35] After the video was reposted by all national media and web news sites, Rai sued the Rapper, while a Parliamentary Investigation was open. Fedez replied he was proud and ready to face the court, and he said he was available as a testimony for the Rai's Supervors Commission. [36]. Fedez's accusation were one of the biggest media scandal of Rai, as not only all political Parties took side in the cause (Centre and left in favor of the Rapper, including ex Prime Ministers Giuseppe Conte and Enrico Letta, while right and far right parties in favor of Rai, including Matteo Salvini and Giorgia Meloni's colleagues.),[37] but also beacuse Fedez and his wife, fashion blogger Chiara Ferragni are the most followed Italians on social media and are very active in social causes and civil rights advocating. The Scandal increased when the Parliamentary commission denied a hearing with Fedez, only speaking with Rai's executives. In the very much criticised email answer (which screenshot was published by Fedez on Instagram) the Office of the Commission stated that, even if not prohibited by law, it was not custom to invite external people to the Commission investigation. Fedez replied to the very much waited email with only three clown emoji, fact that flamed even more the far-right politicians.[38] In July, the new board of Rai was elected, including the CEO and executives, this lead to Rai's CEO Fuortes revealing not only the withdrawal of the action in court for failing all the required accusatory elements, but also that no sueing was ever meant by the new management. Far-right exponent opened a Parliamentary question over the withdrawal. [39][40] After the CEO declaration, no other details were said about any apology or agreement with Fedez: nonetheless the Rapper was invited by Fabio Fazio on the first episode of the new season of his late show.[41]

Following the 2021 Censorship scandal, Fedez reinforced some controversy against Rai when he announced he wasn't invited to the 2022 Concertone for the first time.[42]

Budget and Unjustified Expenses

Rai was investigated and fined (with many executives arrested or fired) for unjustified expenses and suspicious gifts.[43] Frequently It was noticed that dinners, expensive watches and jewellery were all paid by Rai for unknown people outside the company.[44].</ref>

In 2022 a new scandal was investigated by the Guardia di Finanza surrounding corruption and bribes. At least 5 people in total were arrested, while the investigation is still ongoing.[45]

TV channels

Current channels

Logo Name Channel Type Launched Description
Generalist and semi generalist
Rai 1 - Logo 2016.svg
Rai 1 501 Free-to-air
Satellite
3 January 1954 Generalist and family-oriented
Rai 2 - Logo 2016.svg
Rai 2 502 Free-to-air
Satellite
4 November 1961 Generalist, catering towards urban audiences
Rai 3 - Logo 2016.svg
Rai 3 503, 3 Free-to-air
Satellite
15 December 1979 Cultural and regional programming
Rai 4 - Logo 2016.svg
Rai 4 21 Free-to-air
Satellite
14 July 2008 Youth/urban programming and movies
Rai 5 - Logo 2017.svg
Rai 5 23 Free-to-air
Satellite
26 November 2010 Arts and culture programming
Thematic
Rai Movie - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Movie 24 Free-to-air
Satellite
1 July 1999 Movies
Rai Premium - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Premium 25 Free-to-air
Satellite
31 July 2003 Popular fiction and films
Rai Gulp - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Gulp 42 Free-to-air
Satellite
1 June 2007 Shows aimed at young children ages 8–14
Rai Yoyo - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Yoyo 43 Free-to-air 1 November 2006 Shows aimed at young children ages 4–7
Rai News 24 logo (2022).svg
Rai News 24 48 Free-to-air
Satellite
26 April 1999 Non-stop rolling news
Rai Storia - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Storia 54 Free-to-air 2 February 2009 Documentaries about history and culture
Rai Scuola - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Scuola 57 Free-to-air
Satellite
19 October 2009 Documentary, cultural and educational
Rai Sport - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Sport 146 Free-to-air 1 February 1999 Sports coverage and related news
In high definition and ultra definition
Logo Name Channel Type Launched Description
Rai 1 HD - Logo 2016.svg
Rai 1 HD 1 Free-to-air 25 October 2013 HD version of Rai 1
Rai 2 HD - Logo 2016.svg
Rai 2 HD 2 Free-to-air 25 October 2013 HD version of Rai 2
Rai 3 HD - Logo 2016.svg
Rai 3 HD 103 Free-to-air 25 October 2013 HD version of Rai 3
Rai 4 HD - Logo 2016.svg
Rai 4 HD 521* Free-to-air 22 January 2016 HD version of Rai 4
Rai 5 HD - Logo 2017.svg
Rai 5 HD Free-to-view 19 September 2016 HD version of Rai 5
Rai Movie HD - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Movie HD Free-to-view 26 May 2016 HD version of Rai Movie
Rai Premium HD - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Premium HD Free-to-air 26 May 2016 HD version of Rai Premium
Rai Gulp HD - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Gulp HD Free-to-air 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai Gulp
Rai Yoyo HD - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Yoyo HD Free-to-air 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai Yoyo
Rai News 24 HD logo (2022).svg
Rai News 24 HD Free-to-air 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai News 24
Rai Storia HD - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Storia HD Free-to-air 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai Storia
Rai Sport + HD - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Sport + HD 58 Free-to-air 14 September 2015 HD version of Rai Sport
Rai Scuola HD - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Scuola HD Free-to-air 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai Scuola
Rai 4K - Logo 2017.svg
Rai 4K [it] 210 Free-to-view 17 June 2016 Ultra HD channel

Due to the broadcasting rights of the free-to-air satellite channels Rai 1, Rai 2, Rai 3 and Rai Sport in some programs, broadcasts outside Italy are encrypted. In particular, it takes part in copyrighted programs (mostly foreign productions) and international sports competitions. In the past, it was encrypted as Discrete in analog satellite television broadcasts due to broadcasting rights outside Italy. Rai channels will not be broadcast due to broadcasting rights on digital platforms outside Italy.

International
Logo Name Channel Launched Description
Rai Italia - Logo 2017.svg
Rai Italia 1 January 1992 Catered towards Italian expatriates
Rai World Premium - Logo 2017.svg
Rai World Premium [it] 6 May 2013 Italian culture and national TV shows
Regional
Logo Name Channel Launched Language Region
Rai Alto Adige - Logo 2018.svg
Rai Alto Adige [it] 1960 Italian Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Rai Ladinia - Logo 2018.png
Rai Ladinia 1988 Ladin Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Rai Südtirol - Logo 2019.svg
Rai Südtirol 103 1966 German Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Rai 3 Bis FJK 2016.png
Rai 3 BIS FJK [it] 1995 Italian and Slovene Friuli-Venezia Giulia/Furlanija Julijska Krajina

Discontinued channels

Radio stations

Rai Radio logo (September 2017)

Current stations

On FM, AM, Satellite, DAB/DAB+, DTT, Filodiffusion, Web:

Regional stations:

Only on Satellite, DAB/DAB+, DTT, Filodiffusion and Web:

Discontinued stations

Divisions and subsidiaries

Strutture Rai [it] (Rai Structures) is a news organization internal to Rai, or rather an internal management and division, created in order to independently manage the programs broadcast on the generalist and, in particular, thematic networks. After 2000, Rai reorganized its corporate structure with the creation of specific structures, listed here:

Related companies

  • Rai Cinema [it] (1998–): film production company
  • Rai Click [it] (2000–2009): television programs on demand, later replaced by Rai On [it]
  • Rai Com [it] (2015–): promotes the marketing rights of the productions
  • Rai Pubblicità [it] (1926–): advertising agency
  • Rai Corporation [it] (1960–2012): production, distribution and marketing in the United States
  • RaiNet [it] (1999–2014): managed the web portals from the rai.it and rai.tv domains
  • RaiSat (1997–2010): subsidiary created to produce thematic TV channels for satellite television
  • Rai Trade [it] (1987–2011): promoted the marketing rights of the productions
  • Rai World [it] (2011–14), previously Rai Internazionale [it] (1995–2011): radio and television distribution abroad, operated Rai Italia
  • Rai Way (1999–): broadcasting network for the distribution of the broadcast signal
  • Sacis [it] (1955–1997): television rights management and marketing

Other services

Rai Libri

Rai Libri
Formerly
  • Rai Eri (1996–2018)
  • Nuova Eri (1987–1995)
  • Edizioni Radio Italiana (ERI) (1949–1987)
IndustryPublishing
Genre
  • Magazines
  • Broadcast schedules
  • Media reports
PredecessorURI/RAI
Founded1949; 73 years ago (1949) in Turin, Italy.
Headquarters
Turin
,
Italy
ParentRAI

Rai Libri is the print publishing arm of Rai, headquartered in Turin. They primarily publish magazines and periodicals for news, entertainment, the broadcast industry, and since their beginning, broadcast schedules. They also have published since 1969 the Dictionary of Orthography and Pronunciation [Wikidata], the largest Italian dictionary of its kind.

Publishing history

RAI's history in print with the Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI)'s weekly magazine Radio Orario which debuted in January 1925 and became Radiocorriere in 1930. Edizioni Radio Italiana (ERI) was founded in 1949 in Turin, formed entirely from RAI capital to build on Radiocorriere's success. In 1954 primary ownership was split between RAI and Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI).[46] That same year Radiocorriere became Radiocorriere TV, which would continue to be published until RAI divested in 1995.[47]

During the 50s and 60s the ERI published Classe Unica, L'Approdo letterario [it] and L'Approdo Musicale [it], and in 1969 the first edition of the DOP. The 80s saw the premiere of the monthlies Moda (1983) and King (1987),[48] along with registering a new company name in 1987: Nuova Eri Edizioni Rai-Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A., or "Nuova ERI".[46]

Since the 90s RAI/ERI has increasingly focused on publishing books written by its own broadcast stars, both in news and entertainment. In 1995 Nuova ERI closed and reopened in 1997 as "Rai Eri".[49] On 15 October 2018, they renamed to "Rai Libri".

Rai Libri also edits technical publications: Elettronica e telecomunicazioni since 1946,[50] Nuova rivista musicale italiana since 1967,[51] and Nuova civiltà delle macchine since 1957.[52] It produces its own reports on communications and media, with the second edition of the book-and-documentary RicordeRai released in 2004 in collaboration with Rai Teche.

Radiocorriere TV

RAI (originally URI) had printed its broadcast schedules nearly without interruption starting in 1925 as Radio Orario, then from 1930 as Radiocorriere,[53][54] then continuously from 1954 as Radiocorriere TV, until RAI divested in 1995.

The magazine was restarted under publisher Rcc edizioni [it] with a print edition from 1999 to 2008, closing due to poor sales. It reopened in 2012 as an online-only publication, with a handful of special-occasion independent print runs in the intervening years, including 2005 (its 80th anniversary),[55] 2010 (switchover to DTTV),[56] and 2011 (150th anniversary of the unification of Italy).[57] The "Rai Ufficio Stampa [press office]" website has meanwhile published programming schedules and television blurbs online since 2011 under the magazine's name. On 3 January 2014, Rai Teche published online the complete 1925–1995 archives of URI/RAI's Radio Orario/Radiocorriere/TV.[58]

Headquarters and offices

Seat Centers of television production Auditoriums/theatres Studios
Rome Centro radiotelevisivo "Biagio Agnes", Saxa Rubra 16
Rome CPTV Via Teulada, 66 9
Rome CPTV Studi "Fabrizio Frizzi", Via Ettore Romagnoli, 30 6
Rome Teatro delle Vittorie 1 theatre
Rome Auditorium of Foro Italico 1 auditorium
Milan CP Corso Sempione, 27 3 auditoriums 5
Milan CPTV Via Mecenate, 76 4
Naples CP Viale Marconi, 9 1 auditorium 7
Turin CP Via Verdi, 16 1 auditorium 6

Local offices

Foreign offices

There are RAI offices in foreign countries, which produce news reports that are broadcast live in Italy. These offices are in: Brussels, Paris, Berlin, London, New York City, Beijing, Cairo, Jerusalem, Nairobi, Moscow, Rio de Janeiro, and Bangkok.

Finances

Debt level

As March 2015, the RAI has a debt of €442 million and the Italian Court of Audit was worried about the size of RAI's debt for the impact that this may have on Italian people, as the company is owned by the state.[59]

Mandatory annual fee on all televisions in Italy

Italians must purchase an annual television licence for about €90 every year in order to legally own a TV or HDTV. It is known as Canone Rai, "Rai Tax" because it is used to part-fund the RAI. Since 2016, it is financed through the electricity bill.[60]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c [1] (in English) Retrieved on 23-04-2021
  2. ^ [2] (in English) Retrieved on 13-01-2016
  3. ^ "Rai.it - Il gruppo Rai". www.rai.it. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  4. ^ Originally a distinction was made in Italian between wireless telegraphy (radiofonia) and wireless telephony (radioaudizione circolare). The latter term has now fallen into disuse. La radio in Italia cronologia Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine (in Italian) Retrieved on 2007-11-28
  5. ^ Pusterla, Sabrina (27 November 2018). "The Italian Television System Explained". Italics Magazine. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  6. ^ "RAI - Un 2019 ricco di ascolti tra film, fiction, sport e programmi TV". Cinemaitaliano.info. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Basta con il governo padrone, così cambierà la Tv pubblica" Archived 2007-12-27 at archive.today (in Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-10
  8. ^ " DDL Riforma Rai" Archived 2007-12-13 at archive.today (in Italian) Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10
  9. ^ https://www.mise.gov.it/index.php/it/comunicazioni/televisione/rai#:~:text=La%20RAI%20%2D%20Radiotelevisione%20Italiana%2C%20%C3%A8,un'informazione%20completa%20e%20imparziale
  10. ^ RAI under the Center-Right: Wither 50 Years of Public Service Television? by Matthew Hibberd, in Italian Politics: Vol. 19, Italy between Europeanization and Domestic Politics,
  11. ^ "RAI under the Center-Right: Wither 50 Years of Public Service Television? by Matthew Hibberd, in Italian Politics: Vol. 19, Italy between Europeanization and Domestic Politics, 2003, Berghahn Books".
  12. ^ The Origins of radio broadcasting in Italy Archived 7 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine Comitato Guglielmo Marconi International (retrieved 27 November 2011)
  13. ^ Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 11 of 15 January 1925 pp. 164-167
  14. ^ retrieved on 2009-06-21 Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Italian)
  15. ^ ""RAI's privatisation is de facto suspended", its new director general, Alfredo Meocci, told a parliamentary watchdog committee". Archived from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2006.
  16. ^ "Berlusconi halts plan to sell off state broadcaster". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  17. ^ "Il pubblico in fuga da una Rai faziosa". 17 May 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  18. ^ ""Rai faziosa" Brunetta lancia l'osservatorio online". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  19. ^ Storia ed evoluzione del logo RAI - Radiotelevisione italiana (retrieved 14 March 2020)
  20. ^ "Il pubblico in fuga da una Rai faziosa". 17 May 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  21. ^ ""Rai faziosa" Brunetta lancia l'osservatorio online". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  22. ^ https://tv.fanpage.it/bruno-vespa-fabio-fazio-e-il-caso-stipendi-rai-la-verita-sui-due-contratti-e-le-loro-differenze/
  23. ^ https://www.rivistailmulino.it/a/rai-servizio-pubblico-o-tv-commerciale
  24. ^ https://www.occrp.org/en/daily/13382-italian-broadcaster-faces-probe-after-uncovering-lega-nord-scandal
  25. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/italy-brokeback-idUKLA53910420081210[bare URL]
  26. ^ https://www.gay.it/brokeback-mountain-il-bacio-censurato-di-nuovo-dalla-rai[bare URL]
  27. ^ "Queering Italian Media by Sole Anatrone and Julia Hem, 2022, Lexington Books".
  28. ^ https://www.indexoncensorship.org/2011/09/gay-marriage-screened-banned-from-italian-state-tv-channel/
  29. ^ https://www.corriere.it/spettacoli/16_luglio_09/bacio-gay-rai2-censura-a8277610-45b8-11e6-be0f-475f9043ad28.shtml
  30. ^ https://people.com/tv/shonda-rhimes-jack-falahee-blast-rai-uno-for-censoring-hgtawm-gay-sex-scene/[bare URL]
  31. ^ https://www.wired.it/play/televisione/2016/07/11/rai2-censura-coliver/
  32. ^ https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/general-news/italian-broadcaster-rai-apologizes-cutting-909631/
  33. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56966359
  34. ^ https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/italian-rapper-attacks-league-over-lgbt-accuses-rai-censorship-2021-05-02/[bare URL]
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  50. ^ Rivista tecnica dal 1946, cfr. il sito.
  51. ^ Nata nel 1967 è oggi diretta da Giovanni Carli Ballola, Paolo Donati, Giorgio Pestelli, Giancarlo Rostirolla e Roman Vlad
  52. ^ Su progetto di Leonardo Sinisgalli che ne diresse la prima serie (1957-1979) è oggi diretta dal comitato scientifico di Dario Antiseri, Edoardo Boncinelli, Umberto Bottazzini, Vittorio Marchis e Silvano Tagliagambe in collaborazione con il Centro D.I.E.A. (Documentazione su Ingegneria ed Etica Ambientale) della Facoltà di Ingegneria dell'Università di Bologna.
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External links

Coordinates: 41°55′4″N 12°27′59″E / 41.91778°N 12.46639°E / 41.91778; 12.46639

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