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|Broadcast area||National. Also distributed in Spain, Morocco and via satellite across Europe and in certain areas by cable.|
|Picture format||1080i HDTV |
(downscaled to 576i for the SDTV feed)
|Owner||Rádio e Televisão de Portugal|
|Launched||7 March 1957|
|Former names||RTP (1957−68)|
I Programa (1968−78)
RTP Canal 1 (1989−96)
|TDT||Channel 1 (SD)|
RTP1 (RTP um) is a Portuguese free-to-air television channel owned and operated by state-owned public broadcaster Rádio e Televisão de Portugal (RTP). It is the company's flagship television channel, and is known for broadcasting mainstream and generalist programming, including Telejornal news bulletins, prime time drama, cinema and entertainment, and major breaking news, sports and special events.
It was launched on 7 March 1957 as the first regular television service in Portugal. It was the only one until 25 December 1968, when RTP launched a second channel. Two regional channels followed, RTP Madeira on 6 August 1972 and RTP Açores on 10 August 1975. As RTP held a monopoly on television broadcasting in the country, they were the only television channels until the first commercial television was launched on 6 October 1992, when SIC started broadcasting nationwide.
The channel was initially simply referred to as "RTP". It received other names, such as "I Programa" and "RTP Canal 1" until it adopted its current name "RTP1". It is one of the most watched television networks in the country. The channel became a 24-hour service in 2002, although it now leases its graveyard slot (3:56 am to 5:59 am) to the infomercial producer and direct-response marketer, A Loja Em Casa (in turn owned by El Corte Inglés). Until that point, RTP1 closed down with the national anthem, but this practice stopped not too long before infomercials filled the overnight slots. Unlike RTP2, RTP1 broadcasts commercial advertising, which, along with the license fee, finances the channel.
RTP was established in December 1955 with test broadcasts conducted in September 1956 at the now-defunct Feira Popular amusement park in Lisbon. Regular broadcasts commenced at 21:30 on 7 March 1957. Initially the channel broadcast from 21:30 to either 23:00 or 23:30, with an additional period on Sundays between 18:00 and 19:00.
Initially, RTP had a limited coverage area, using 5 transmitters (Monsanto, Montejunto, Lousã, Monte da Virgem and Foia) that covered about 60% of the country's population.
It then expanded to the whole of the mainland in the mid-1960s. On 18 October 1959, Telejornal went on air for the first time, becoming the longest-running news program in Portugal and the longest-running Portuguese-language TV show.
It was the only TV channel available in Portugal until 25 December 1968, when RTP2 started broadcasting. Because of that, RTP had to identify both channels as I Programa and II Programa in order to distinguish them.
Daytime broadcasts commenced in 1970, with a two-hour period running at various times mostly between 12:30 and 14:30. Before then, Telescola (educational classes) were generally the first programmes of the day and the regular schedule started at 19:00, running until midnight.
In 1974, RTP's ratings grew with the expansion of the acquisition of television sets in the country. The first colour broadcasts were conducted in 1976, with the legislative elections.
On 16 October 1978, the channel was renamed RTP-1 (initially hyphenated). Colour programming was now in production, and a heat of Jeux Sans Frontières has to be transmitted in said technology in order to air to the rest of Europe, which already had regular colour broadcasts at the time. As the months progressed, more and more colour broadcasts were included before launching regularly on 7 March 1980.
In October 1983, the daytime period was abolished in order to save energy. Weekday broadcasts were then restricted to start at 17:00 and end at 23:00. Said broadcasts were resumed in 1985, when RTP decided to broadcast the daytime block from Oporto. The educational broadcasts (then known as Ciclo Preparatório TV) were abolished in 1988. By then, daytime shutdowns were abolished.
Towards the end of the 1980s, RTP was facing challenges with the impending arrival of private broadcasters. As a result, RTP decided to rename RTP1 as RTP Canal 1, in readiness for a bigger rebrand that happened on 17 September 1990, where the channel was now officially rebranded as Canal 1, in order to reinforce its position in front of the new broadcasters. Having lost its leadership status slowly between 1994 and 1995, owing to SIC's success, it eventually turned into the vice-leader before falling into third place, when TVI got a ratings boost.
On 29 April 1996, Canal 1 reverted to RTP1.
In 2002, Emídio Rangel joined RTP1, coming from SIC, changing the face of public television in Portugal but causing havoc on the broadcaster. During this phase, the channel had overly-long news bulletins (i.e. RTP at 8 ending as late as 21:30) and thought-provoking debate shows (Gregos e Troianos).
On 31 March 2004, RTP1 rebranded entirely now broadcasting from RTP's new headquarters.
The channel started widescreen tests on 8 June 2012 with the Euro 2012 opening ceremony and the first match (Poland vs. Greece). On 14 January 2013, the channel formally became a widescreen channel.
Logos and identites
March 1957 to 1959 (as I Programa (1968–1978) to distinguish itself from RTP2)
- Manchetes 3 (simulcast with RTP3)
- Bom Dia Portugal
- Jornal da Tarde
- Portugal em Direto
- Edição Especial (only on special occasions)
- Última Hora (breaking news)
- Sexta às 9
- Praça da Alegria – a daily variety talk-show broadcast on weekdays between 10 a.m. and 1 pm. It targets the more elderly and illiterate part of the population, with human interest stories, and does not broadcast in summer.
- A Nossa Tarde – another daily variety talk-show also broadcast on weekdays between 3 p.m. and 6 pm. Also features interviews, live performances and human interest stories, but with a broader target and appeal. These two talk-shows are often criticized for their long running time, less educated target demographics and for competing with other private television stations with the same format, at the same times of the day. Does not broadcast in the summer.
- Aqui Portugal
- Verão Total – is a summer show used to fill in for "Praça da Alegria" and "A Nossa Tarde". The show is broadcast from a different town every day.
- Auga Seca
- The Flash
- Major Crimes (Crimes Graves)
- Pinkalicious & Peterrific (La Rose de Curioso La) (upcoming)
- The Price Is Right (O Preço Certo)
Late-night talk shows
- 5 Para A Meia-Noite
- Cá Por Casa com Herman José
- Depois Vai-se A Ver E Nada
- Prova Oral
- NOS Alive
- MEO Marés Vivas
Documentaries or infotainment
- Portugueses pelo Mundo
Exclusive broadcasting rights
In 1988, RTP pulled several sketches from Humor de Perdição: the last few sketches from the Historical Interviews series.
In 1995, Catholic groups and Rádio Renascença put RTP under pressure for airing the infamous "Last Supper" special edition of Herman ZAP. As a result, it and Parabéns were both pulled.