Siege of Mariupol

battle in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Encyclopedia from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Siege of Mariupol
Part of the Eastern Ukraine offensive of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Situation in Mariupol.svg
Date24 February 2022 – present
(1 month, 1 week and 6 days)
Location
Status

Ongoing

  • Russian forces completely besiege the city on 2 March[1]
  • Russian forces reach the center of Mariupol on 18 March[2][3]
  • 90% of Mariupol damaged or destroyed[4][5]
Belligerents
 Ukraine
Commanders and leaders
Mikhail Mizintsev[6] (Head of NDCC)
Andrey Sukhovetsky [7] (41st CAA, place of death disputed)[7]
Adam Delimkhanov[8]
Oleg Mityaev [9] (150th Rifle Div.)[9]
Andrei Paliy [10] (Black Sea Fleet landing forces)[10]
Colonel Alexei Sharov [11] (810th Marine Brig.)[11]
Volodymyr Baranyuk [uk]
(36th Naval Infantry Brig.)[12]
Denys Prokopenko [uk][13]
Svyatoslav Palamar[14]
Units involved

 Russian Armed Forces

Donetsk People's Republic DPR Armed Forces

  • Mariupol-Khingan Naval Infantry

 Ukrainian Armed Forces

Strength
14,000 personnel[22]

3,500 personnel[22]

  • 800 Azov Battalion members[23]
Casualties and losses
Per Ukraine (28 March):
350 killed[24][25][26]
Unknown number of killed
1–2 Mil Mi-8 shot down[27][28]
Per Ukraine: nearly 5,000 civilians killed[29]
Per Ukraine: 20,000–30,000 people deported[30] to camps in Russia[31]

The Siege of Mariupol is an ongoing military engagement between Russia and Ukraine which began on 24 February 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, as part of the Eastern Ukraine offensive. The city of Mariupol is located in the Donetsk Oblast in Ukraine, and is claimed by the Russian-backed separatist Donetsk People's Republic. The Red Cross described the situation as "apocalyptic", and Ukrainian authorities have accused Russia of engineering a major humanitarian crisis in the city,[32][33] with city officials reporting that over 5,000 civilians have been killed, as of 28 March.[29]

Background

The city of Mariupol is considered a major strategic city and target for Russian forces. Mariupol is the largest city in the Ukrainian-controlled portion of Donetsk Oblast.[note 1][34] Mariupol is a major industrial hub and is the largest city on the Sea of Azov.[35]

Control of its port on the western shore of the Sea of Azov is vital to the economy of Ukraine. For Russia, it would accommodate a land route to Crimea as well as allowing passage by Russian marine traffic.[36] Capturing the city would give Russia full control over the Sea of Azov.[37]

In May 2014, during the War in Donbas, forces of the separatist and Russian-backed Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) attacked the city and forced Ukrainian forces to retreat during the Battle of Mariupol.[38] However, the following month, Ukrainian forces recaptured the city during an offensive. The conflict was frozen when the Minsk II ceasefire agreement was signed in 2015.[39]

Prior to the siege, around 100,000 residents left Mariupol according to the city's deputy major.[40]

The city is defended by Azov Battalion,[20] the Territorial Defense Forces of Ukraine and irregular forces.[21]

Siege

Preliminary shelling and advance on the city

On 24 February, the day the invasion began, Russian artillery bombarded the city, reportedly injuring 26 people.[41][42]

On the morning of 25 February, Russian forces advanced from DPR territory in the east towards Mariupol. They encountered Ukrainian forces near the village of Pavlopil, with Ukrainian forces defeating the Russian advance.[43] Vadym Boychenko, mayor of Mariupol, said that 22 Russian tanks had been destroyed in the skirmish.[44][45]

The Russian Navy, drawing on the capabilities provided by the Black Sea Fleet, reportedly began an amphibious assault on the Sea of Azov coastline 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Mariupol on the evening of 25 February.[46] An American defense official stated that the Russians may have deployed thousands of marines from this beachhead.[47][48][49]

On 26 February, Russian forces continued to bombard Mariupol with artillery.[50] Later, the government of Greece announced that ten ethnic Greek civilians had been killed by Russian strikes at Mariupol, six in the village of Sartana and four in the village of Buhas.[51][52]

On the morning of 27 February, Boychenko said that a Russian tank column had advanced on Mariupol from the DPR, but this attack was repulsed by Ukrainian forces, with six Russian soldiers captured.[53] Later that day, a 6-year-old girl in Mariupol was killed by Russian shelling.[54] Pavlo Kyrylenko, governor of Donetsk Oblast, stated that fighting in Mariupol had continued throughout the night of 27 February.[55]

Throughout 28 February, the city remained under Ukrainian control, despite being surrounded by Russian troops and constantly shelled.[56][57] Electricity, gas, and internet connection to most of the city was cut during the evening.[58] Later, according to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Russian Major General Andrey Sukhovetsky was killed by a Ukrainian sniper near Mariupol, but other sources said that he had been killed during the Kyiv offensive.[59][60]

Mariupol surrounded

An apartment building during shelling in Mariupol, 2 March 2022

On 1 March, Denis Pushilin, the head of the DPR, announced that DPR forces had almost completely surrounded the nearby city of Volnovakha and that they would soon do the same to Mariupol.[61] Russian artillery later bombarded Mariupol, causing over 21 injuries.[62]

The city was fully surrounded on 2 March,[1][63] after which the siege intensified.[64] Russian shelling killed a teenager and wounded two other teenagers when they were playing soccer outside.[65][66] Boychenko announced the city was suffering from a water outage and had experienced massive casualties. He also said Russian forces were preventing civilians from exiting.[67][68]

Russian bombing of Mariupol, 3 March 2022.
Smoke from many buildings amid massive Russian bombing in Mariupol.
3 March 2022.

Later on 2 March, Russian artillery targeted a densely populated neighborhood of Mariupol, shelling it for nearly 15 hours. The neighborhood was massively damaged as a result, with deputy mayor Sergiy Orlov reporting that "at least hundreds of people are dead".[69][70]

Russian bombing of Mariupol (03).jpg
A shelled apartment building during around the clock attacks, 3 March 2022

On the morning of 3 March, the city was shelled again by Russian troops.[71] Eduard Basurin, the spokesman for the DPR militia, formally called on the besieged Ukrainian forces in Mariupol to surrender or face "targeted strikes".[72] Russian Ministry of Defense spokesman Igor Konashenkov reported that DPR forces had tightened the siege, and that three nearby settlements had been captured.[73]

On 4 March, Boychenko stated that the city's supplies were running out, and called for a humanitarian evacuation corridor and Ukrainian military reinforcements.[74][75] He also stated that Russian BM-21 Grads were shelling the city's hospitals and that Mariupol residents no longer had heat, running water, or electricity.[76] Later that day, a temporary ceasefire was proposed for the Mariupol region in order to allow citizens to evacuate.[77]

On 5 March, the Ukrainian government announced its desire to evacuate 200,000 civilians from Mariupol. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) announced that it would act as a guarantor for a new ceasefire to allow for this evacuation.[78] The Red Cross described the situation in Mariupol as "extremely dire".[79] After three days of shelling, a ceasefire was announced to be in effect from 11:00 to 16:00.[80] Civilians began to evacuate from Mariupol along a humanitarian corridor to the city of Zaporizhzhia. As civilians entered the evacuation corridor, Russian forces continued shelling the city, forcing evacuees to turn back.[81]

Ukrainian authorities later reported that Russian forces had failed to observe the ceasefire and continued to shell the city.[82] Russian officials accused Ukrainian forces of not allowing civilians to evacuate towards Russia.[83] The DPR reported that only 17 civilians had been evacuated from Mariupol.[84]

On 6 March, the Red Cross announced that a second attempt to evacuate civilians from Mariupol had again failed.[85] Anton Herashchenko, a Ukrainian official, said the second attempt at a humanitarian corridor for civilians in Mariupol ended with a Russian bombardment.[85] The Red Cross reported that there were "devastating scenes of human suffering" in Mariupol.[85][86] Later in the morning, Inna Sovsun, a Ukrainian member of parliament, stated that the fuel pipeline that supplies Mariupol was damaged by Russian forces, leaving more than 700,000 people without heat, and suggesting that people may freeze to death, as the temperature at the time often fell below 0 °C (32 °F).[87] The bombardment also hit the city's last functioning cellular tower.[88]

On 7 March, the ICRC Director of Operations stated that humanitarian corridor agreements had only been made in principle, without the precision required for implementation, needing routes, times and whether goods could be brought in to be agreed. The ICRC team had found that one of the proposed corridor roads was mined, and the ICRC was facilitating talks between Russian and Ukrainian forces.[89][90]

On 8 March, another attempt to evacuate civilians was made, but the Ukrainian government accused Russia of violating the ceasefire again by bombing the evacuation corridor.[91]

On 9 March, the Associated Press reported that scores of Ukrainian civilians and soldiers were being buried by city workers in a mass grave at one of the city's cemeteries. Russian shelling had hit the cemetery the previous day, interrupting the burials and damaging a wall.[92][93] Later, another attempted ceasefire failed after Orlov reported that Russian soldiers had opened fire on construction workers and evacuation points. Orlov described the city's supply shortage as so severe that residents were melting snow to get water.[94] Later that day, the Mariupol City Council issued a statement that a Russian airstrike had struck and destroyed a maternity ward and children's hospital.[95][96][97] Ukrainian officials stated that three civilians were killed and at least 17 wounded.[98]

On the same day, satellite photos of Mariupol taken the morning of 9 March were reported by the science news outlet, Space.com, to show "extensive damage" to high-rise apartments, residential homes, grocery stores and other civilian infrastructure, based on a comparison of before and after photos.[99] The company operating the space satellite and its cameras works for U.S. intelligence agencies and the US military.[100][101]

Russian push into the city

Ukraine's military stated on 12 March that Russian forces had captured the eastern outskirts of Mariupol.[102] Later, a vehicle convoy of 82 ethnic Greeks was able to leave the city via a humanitarian corridor.[103][104]

On 13 March, Boychenko stated that Russian forces had bombed the city at least 22 times in the previous 24 hours, with a hundred bombs, and added that the last food and water reserves in the city were being depleted.[105][106] The Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs said that the National Guard of Ukraine had damaged several Russian armored vehicles with artillery strikes during the day.[107] İsmail Hacıoğlu, the head of the local Sultan Suleiman Mosque, stated that 86 Turkish citizens in the city were awaiting evacuation by the Turkish government.[108]

More than 160 cars were able to leave the city on 14 March at 13:00, the first evacuation allowed during the siege. The Russian Ministry of Defense stated that 450 tonnes of humanitarian aid had been brought to the city after Russian forces captured the outskirts.[109] Ukrainian military officials were later said to have killed 150 Russian soldiers and destroyed 10 Russian vehicles.[110]

Refugee civilians in Mariupol,
12 March 2022

On the same day, Ramzan Kadyrov, the head of Chechnya, stated that Chechen soldiers were participating in the siege and had briefly entered Mariupol before retreating. Kadyrov also stated that Adam Delimkhanov, a close ally and member of the State Duma, was the commander of Chechen forces in Mariupol.[8] The funeral for Captain Alexey Glushchak of the GRU, was held in Tyumen, and it was revealed he died near Mariupol, likely in the early stages of the siege.[111]

On 15 March around 4,000 vehicles with about 20,000 civilians were able to leave the city.[112]

Ukrainian government official Anton Herashchenko said that Russian Maj. Gen. Oleg Mityaev, commander of the 150th Motorized Rifle Division, was killed while Russian forces tried to storm the city.[9][113] The Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre sheltering hundreds of civilians was hit by a Russian airstike on 16 March and destroyed.[114] Pavlo Kyrylenko, the governor of Donetsk Oblast, later stated that Russian forces had also targeted the Neptune swimming pool.[115]

On 18 March, DPR forces said they had captured the Mariupol airport from Ukrainian forces.[116] Clashes later reached the city center according to the mayor.[117]

Ukrainian soldiers attack a Russian tank in Mariupol.

On 19 March, Russian and Ukrainian forces began fighting at an Azovstal steel plant.[118]

The next day, the city council of Mariupol claimed Russian forces had forcefully deported "several thousand" people to camps and remote cities in Russia over the past week.[119][120][14] The same day, Russia denied that this was happening.[14]

Also on 20 March, an art school building, which had sheltered some 400 people, was destroyed in a Russian bombing. No information on casualties was immediately available.[121]

An order by Russia's Ministry of Defence to surrender, lay down arms and evacuate the city was submitted on 20 March, requesting a written response by 02:00 UTC the next day.[122] The ultimatum was rejected by the Ukrainian government and the mayor of Mariupol.[123]

On 21 March, one of the Ukrainian battalion commanders in the city described "bombs falling every 10 minutes".[14]

On 23 March, local authorities, including the mayor, left the city due to the deteriorating situation.[124] The following day, Russian forces entered central Mariupol,[125] seizing the Orthodox Church of the Intercession of the Mother of God. The City Administration alleged the Russians were trying to demoralize residents by publicly shouting claims of Russian victories, including statements that Odessa had been captured.[126]

Vadym Boychenko said on 27 March that while Mariupol was still under Ukrainian control, Russian forces had entered deep into the city and that the city's population needed a "complete evacuation".[127] By this point, Ukrainian soldiers had run out of food and clean drinking water, and an analyst believed that Ukrainian forces wouldn't be able to fight on beyond a few days. However, Ukrainian officers refused to evacuate from the city, as they did not want to abandon their wounded and dead soldiers and civilians.[128] The "Club 8bit" computer museum was destroyed.[129]

On 28 March, Mayor Vadym Boichenko said "we are in the hands of the occupiers today" in a televised interview,[130] and a spokesman for the Mariupol mayor's office announced that "nearly 5,000 people" had been killed in the city since the start of the siege.[131] The Ukrainian government estimated that "from 20,000 to 30,000" Mariupol residents had been forcibly sent[30] to camps in Russia[31] under Russian military control.[30] During the day, Russian forces seized the administrative building in the northern Kalmiusky district[132] and the military headquarters of the Azov Battalion.[133] In addition, Russian spokesman Igor Konashenkov announced that Russian forces had shot down a Ukrainian Mil Mi-8 that was heading to Mariupol to evacuate leaders of the Azov Battalion.[27] The next day, Russian forces were reported to have likely divided Ukrainian troops in the city into two and possibly even three pockets.[134]

On 2 April, Russian forces captured the SBU building in central Mariupol.[135]

Humanitarian situation and war crimes

The aftermath of a shelling
Mariupol maternity and children's hospital, destroyed by Russian air strikes on 9 March 2022.

On 6 March, Petro Andryushchenko, advisor to the mayor of Mariupol, reported that people were "drinking from puddles in the streets" due to the loss of running water in the city caused by days of around-the-clock Russian shelling and bombing attacks. He also stated that there was no heat, electricity or telephone service.[136] While civilians had been unable to evacuate the city due to repeated ceasefire violations, attacks on agreed-upon evacuation corridors and direct attacks on civilians attempting to evacuate.[137]

On 7 March, U.S. ambassador to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Michael Carpenter, described two incidents that occurred in Mariupol on 5 and 6 March as war crimes. He stated that on both dates, Russian forces bombed agreed-upon evacuation corridors while civilians were trying to use them.[137]

On 14 March, another spokesman for the ICRC announced that “hundreds of thousands” of people in the city were “facing extreme or total shortages of basic necessities like food, water and medicine.”[138] On 15 March, Ukraine's Deputy Prime Minister Iryna Vereshchuk accused Russian forces of taking around 400 civilians hostage after capturing a hospital in the city.[139] Ukrainian officials accused Russian forces of firing at an evacuation convoy and injuring five civilians on 16 March.[140] On 18 March, Ukrainian officials stated that more than 350,000 people were sheltering under siege in Mariupol, still with no access to food or water.[141]

On 21 March, CNN reported that an official in Mariupol said people are afraid, due to the constant bombing and shelling, to leave their underground shelters even to obtain food and water, meaning they were trying to drink less and eat less.[14] On 22 March, CNN reported that the Russian Army had confiscated 11 buses that were headed into the city in order to evacuate citizens.[142] Fox News later reported that at least some of the buses were filled with humanitarian supplies which were taken. It was also reported that 15 aid workers in the buses have been arrested while trying to get food into Mariupol.[143] CNN also reported that to that date, all attempts to bring empty buses into Mariupol to evacuate civilians had failed.[142] On 23 March, Ukrainian President Zelenskeyy announced that 100,000 civilians were still unable to get out of Mariupol and that they were trapped in "inhumane conditions" without food, running water or medicine.[144][142]

On 1 April, Russian troops stifled a rescue effort by the UN to transport hundreds of civilian survivors out of Mariupol with 50 allocated buses, while peace talks continued in Istanbul.[145]

Maternity and childrens hospital bombing

Consequences of the bombing of the children's hospital and maternity hospital in Mariupol, March 9, 2022 (translated from Ukrainian).

On 9 March, after an airstrike damaged a maternity ward and children's hospital, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy tweeted that the attack was an "atrocity" along with a video of the building's ruins.[146] The hospital was destroyed.[147] Three people were killed, including a young girl and at least 16 were injured; authorities stated that many more patients and hospital staff were buried under rubble from the blast.[148]

Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov said that the building was formerly a maternity hospital, and Russia bombed it because it was then occupied by the Azov Battalion.[149][150]

Later on the same day, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Maria Zakharova rejected the hospital bombing as "information terrorism", while Russian Ministry of Defence spokesman Igor Konashenkov called the bombardment staged.[151]

Then, on the afternoon of 10 March, the Russian Embassy to the UK said in a tweet that two injured pregnant women seen being evacuated after the attack were actually played by actresses wearing "realistic make-up", that the maternity ward was occupied by the Azov battalion and that no women or children had been present since the facility was "non-operational".[152] The tweet was later removed by Twitter for violating its rules.[152] Dmitry Peskov, the press secretary for the Russian President, stated soon after the bombing that the Russian government would investigate the incident.

The accusation by Russia then began trending online in Russia including Russian Telegram social media which has hundreds of thousands of followers.[153] Twitter then took down the embassy's posts.[153]

The pregnant woman videotaped being carried out wounded on a stretcher (accused by Russia of being an actress) was moved to another hospital and then died on 13 March, after her child was stillborn. She had suffered numerous injuries in the bombing, including a crushed pelvis and detached hip, which contributed to the stillbirth of her child.[154] Seeing that she had lost her baby, medical workers said that she cried out to them: “Kill me now.”[155] Thirty minutes later, she also died.[155]

Russian claims that the videos were faked and that the bombed hospital was being used as a military post were debunked by investigative reporters.[156]

Regional theater bombing

The Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre was bombed on 16 March.

On 16 March, the Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre of the city was struck and largely destroyed by an airstrike.[140] The Mariupol city council accused Russia of targeting the drama theater, where at least hundreds of civilians had been sheltering.[157] Human Rights Watch stated that the theater was sheltering at least 500 civilians.[158] Serhiy Taruta, the former governor of Donetsk Oblast, stated that 1,300 were sheltering inside.[159]

A satellite image taken by Maxar Technologies on 14 March showed that the Russian word for "children" was written in large white letters on the pavement in both the front and the back of the theater, which would make it clear that civilians were sheltering inside.[160] Ukrainian Minister of Foreign Affairs Dmytro Kuleba claimed that Russia "could not have not known this was a civilian shelter". According to the Verkhovna Rada, it was impossible to start rescue operations at the theatre due to the ongoing shelling.[161] The city council also stated that access to the shelter in the theatre was blocked by debris.[162] The Russian Defense Ministry denied attacking the building and accused the Azov Battalion of blowing it up.[163]

The bomb shelter in the basement, where people had been sheltering, however, was able to resist the attack according to Taruta. Survivors began emerging from the remains of the theater on 17 March.[159] More than 130 civilians had been rescued from the basement as of 18 March, according to Ukrainian officials, and rescuers had yet to find any fatalities. The city council stated that no one had died according to initial information, but one person was gravely wounded.[164]

Mass shelling of residential areas

War damage in Mariupol, 12 March 2022
A street of Mariupol during siege of the city in the course of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.

On 2 March, deputy mayor Sergiy Orlov reported that Russian artillery targeted a densely populated neighborhood of Mariupol, shelling it for nearly 15 hours. He said that one populated residential district on the city's left bank had been "nearly totally destroyed".[69]

Satellite photos of Mariupol taken the morning of 9 March taken by Maxar Technologies showed "extensive damage" to high-rise apartments, residential homes, grocery stores and other civilian infrastructure. This was determined by comparing before and after photos.[165] The Mariupol council made a statement that the damage to the city has been "enormous". It estimated that approximately 80% of the city's homes had been significantly damaged, of which almost 30% were beyond repair.[166] Reporting from Mariupol, Reuters reporter Pavel Klimov said that "all around are the blackened shells" of tower block dwellings.[167]

On 16 March BBC News reported that nearly constant Russian attacks had turned residential neighbourhoods into "a wasteland."[168] On the same day it reported that it had obtained drone footage showing "a vast extent of damage, with fire and smoke billowing out of apartment blocks and blackened streets in ruins."[168] A city resident told the BBC that "in the left bank area, there's no residential building intact, it's all burned to the ground." The left bank contained a densely populated residential district.[69] She also said that the city centre is "unrecognisable."[168] On the same day the Institute for the Study of War (ISW) reported that Russian forces continued to commit war crimes in Mariupol including "targeting civilian infrastructure."[169]

On 18 March, Lt Gen Jim Hockenhull, Chief of Defence Intelligence for the United Kingdom (UK), described "continued targeting of civilians in Mariupol".[170] Ukrainian authorities stated that about 90% of buildings in Mariupole were now damaged or destroyed.[141] On the same day, Sky News from the UK described videos as showing "civilian areas left unrecognisable by the bombing."[141] Sky News also quoted the Red Cross as describing "Apocalyptic destruction in Mariupol."[141] On 19 March 2022 a Ukrainian police officer in Mariupol made a video in which he said "Children, elderly people are dying. The city is destroyed and it is wiped off the face of the earth." The video was authenticated by the Associated Press.[171]

The government of Mariupol said on 28 March that 90% of all buildings in Mariupol had been damaged by shelling, with 40% of all structures inside the city destroyed.[172] The statistics released also counted that 90% of Mariupol's hospitals had been damaged, and that 23 schools and 28 kindergartens had been destroyed by Russian shelling.[173]

Civilian casualties

Mariupol's deputy mayor Serhiy Orlov stated on 9 March that at least 1,170 civilians in the city had been killed in the city since Russia's invasion began and the dead were being buried in mass graves.[174] On 11 March, the city council stated that at least 1,582 civilians had been killed during the siege, increasing that number on 13 March to 2,187 having been killed by the latter date.[175][176] On 14 March, Oleksiy Arestovych, an adviser to Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy, stated that more than 2,500 civilians had been killed in Mariupol's siege.[177] However, the city council later clarified that 2,357 civilians had died.[178]

Pyotr Andryushchenko, an adviser to the city government, however stated that the council's count was inaccurate and estimated that total number of civilians killed could be as high as 20,000. The New York Times reported that officials in the city had been struggling to account for how many civilians had died or gone missing during the siege. Videos posted on Telegram showed that residents of the Cheryomushki neighborhood were forced to bury corpses in a courtyard, while others had to turn a post office building into a makeshift morgue, stacking it with dead bodies.[179]

On 16 March, the Associated Press (AP) reported that it had documented that many of the dead were "children and mothers" contrary, it said, to Russian government claims that civilians had not been targeted.[180] It also reported that doctors in Mariupol were saying that they were treating "10 injured civilians for every injured Ukrainian soldier."[180]

Evacuation attempts

On 1 April, a rescue effort by the UN to transport hundreds of civilian survivors out of Mariupol with 50 allocated buses was impeded by Russian troops who refused them safe passage into the city, while peace talks continued in Istanbul.[181] On 4 April, a Russian Navy missile hit a Malta-based Dominica-flagged cargo ship, resulting in the ship catching fire.[182]

Reaction

The siege has been compared by Ukrainian and US officials to the siege of Leningrad during World War II.[183][184][185]

Media coverage

The Associated Press staff member Mstyslav Chernov and the freelancer Evgeniy Maloletka, working for AP, stayed in Mariupol since late February until 11 March. They were among the few journalists, and, according to the AP, the only international journalists in Mariupol during that period, and their photographs were extensively used by Western media to cover the siege and the situation in the city.[186] According to Chernov, on 11 March they were in a hospital taking photos when they were evacuated from the city with the assistance of Ukrainian soldiers. They managed to escape from Mariupol unharmed, at which point he said no journalists were left in the city.[187]

See also

References

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Notes

  1. ^ The largest city de jure in Donetsk Oblast is Donetsk, which has been de facto held by the DPR since 2014.

External links

Original content from Wikipedia, shared with licence Creative Commons By-Sa - Siege of Mariupol