Textual variants in the Gospel of Luke

differences in New Testament manuscripts

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Textual variants in the Gospel of Luke are the subject of the study called textual criticism of the New Testament. Textual variants in manuscripts arise when a copyist makes deliberate or inadvertent alterations to a text that is being reproduced. An abbreviated list of textual variants in this particular book is given in this article below.

Most of the variations are not significant and some common alterations include the deletion, rearrangement, repetition, or replacement of one or more words when the copyist's eye returns to a similar word in the wrong location of the original text. If their eye skips to an earlier word, they may create a repetition (error of dittography). If their eye skips to a later word, they may create an omission. They may resort to performing a rearranging of words to retain the overall meaning without compromising the context. In other instances, the copyist may add text from memory from a similar or parallel text in another location. Otherwise, they may also replace some text of the original with an alternative reading. Spellings occasionally change. Synonyms may be substituted. A pronoun may be changed into a proper noun (such as "he said" becoming "Jesus said"). John Mill's 1707 Greek New Testament was estimated to contain some 30,000 variants in its accompanying textual apparatus[1] which was based on "nearly 100 [Greek] manuscripts."[2] Peter J. Gurry puts the number of non-spelling variants among New Testament manuscripts around 500,000, though he acknowledges his estimate is higher than all previous ones.[3]

Scholars find that many textual variants in the narratives of the Nativity of Jesus (Luke 2, as well as Matthew 1–2) and the Finding in the Temple (Luke 2:41–52) involve deliberate alterations such as substituting the words 'his father' with 'Joseph', or 'his parents' with 'Joseph and his mother'.[4] Alexander Globe (1980) concluded 'that most of the non-Neutral readings under consideration were introduced to remove inconsistencies between the biblical narratives and abstract doctrinal statements concerning the virginity of Mary.'[4]

Legend

A guide to the symbols used in the body of this article.

Notable manuscripts

Textual variants

Textual variants in the Gospel of Luke

3 Textual variants in Luke 1
Codex Boreelianus, beginning of Luke

Luke 1:28[5]

καὶ εἰσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτὴν εἶπεν Χαῖρε, κεχαριτωμένη, ὁ Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ. (and [he] went to her and said: "Greetings, favoured one, the lord is with you.") – Alexandrian text-type: Westcott and Hort 1881, Westcott and Hort / [NA27 and UBS4 variants], 1864–94, Nestle 1904
καὶ εἰσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτὴν ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν· χαῖρε, κεχαριτωμένη, ὁ κύριος μετὰ σοῦ. (and the angel went to her and said: "Greetings, favoured one, the lord is with you.") – Tischendorf 8th Edition
Καὶ εἰσελθὼν ὁ ἄγγελος πρὸς αὐτὴν εἴπεν, Χαῖρε, κεχαριτωμένη· ὁ κύριος μετὰ σοῦ, εὐλογημένη σὺ ἐν γυναιξίν. (And the angel went to her and said: "Greetings, favoured one, the Lord is with you, you are blessed among women.") – Byz: Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550, Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894, RP Byzantine Majority Text 2005, Greek Orthodox Church

Luke 1:29[6]

ἡ δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ διεταράχθη, (and she was troubled at the words,) – Alexandrian text-type: Westcott and Hort 1881, Westcott and Hort / [NA27 and UBS4 variants], 1864–94, Tischendorf 8th Edition, Nestle 1904
Ἡ δὲ ἰδοῦσα διεταράχθη ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ αὐτοῦ, (And when she saw [him], she was troubled at his words,) – Byz: Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550, Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894, RP Byzantine Majority Text 2005, Greek Orthodox Church

Luke 1:75

πάσαις ταῖς ἡμέραις ἡμῶν. (all our days) – Alexandrian text-type
πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ζωῆς ἡμῶν. (all the days of our lives) – Byz

15 Textual variants in Luke 2
Luke 2:5
γυναικί (woman) – Byz
omitted by Alexandrian text-type

Luke 2:7

φατνη (manger) – א A B D L W Θ Ξ 700
τη φατνη (the manger) – Ψ 053 f1 f13 Byz
τω σπηλαιω φατνη (the cave's manger) – Origen (via Epiphanius)

Luke 2:9

καὶ ἄγγελος (and the angel) – Alexandrian text-type
Καὶ ἰδού, ἄγγελος (And see, the angel) – Byz
εφοβηθησαν σφοδρα (they feared exceedingly) – Β
εφοβηθησαν φοβον μεγαν (they feared with great fear) – א A D L Ψ 053 f1 f13 Byz
εφοβηθησαν φοβον μεγαν σφοδρα (they feared with exceedingly great fear) – W copsa

Luke 2:12

κείμενον (lying) – omitted by Tischendorf 8th Edition

Luke 2:21

ἐπλήσθησαν (fulfilled) – א Β A L Ψ 053 f1 f13 Byz
επληρωθησαν (finished) – Θ 33
συνετελέσθησαν (completed) – D copsa

Luke 2:21

αυτον και εκληθη (and he was called) – א Β A L Ψ 053 f1 Βyz
αυτον εκληθη (he was called) – Θ f13 565
το παιδιον ωνομασθη (the child was called) – D

Luke 2:22

αὐτῶν – א, A, B, K, L, W, Δ, Θ, Ξ, Π, Ψ, 053 etc.
αυτου – D, 2174, syrs, copsa
αὐτῆς – 76
omit – 435, copbo

Luke 2:27

τοὺς γονεῖς (the parents) – almost all manuscripts,[7] including most Byzantine and Alexandrian ones[8]
omitted by a few late Greek manuscripts, including Minuscule 245, 1347, 1510, 2643[7]
(Joseph and Mary) – Middle English, Tuscan, and Liège Diatessarons (13th–14th century)[7]
(they) – Venetian Diatessaron (Codex Marcianus 4975, 14th century)[7]

Luke 2:33[9]

καὶ ἦν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ θαυμάζοντες (and his father and mother were amazed) – 01, B, D, L, W, 700, Vg, cop.[4] Alexandrian text-type: Westcott and Hort 1881, Westcott and Hort / [NA27 and UBS4 variants], 1864–94, Nestle 1904.[9]
καὶ ἦν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ θαυμάζοντες (and his father and his mother were amazed) – Tischendorf 8th Edition
καὶ ἦν Ἰωσὴφ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ θαυμάζοντες (and Joseph and his mother were amazed) – A, K, X, Δ, Θ, Π, Ψ, 053, ƒ13, 28, 565, ... it syrph, h, pal(MSS), copbo(MSS), goth, Dia.[4] Byz: Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550, Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894, RP Byzantine Majority Text 2005, Greek Orthodox Church.[9]

Luke 2:38

καὶ αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ (and at that hour) – א, A, B, D, L, W, Δ, Ξ, Ψ, 0130, 28, 33
καὶ αὕτη αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ (and at that hour she) – Θ, 053, f1, f13, Byz

Luke 2:40[10]

ἐκραταιοῦτο (became strong) – Alexandrian text-type
ἐκραταιοῦτο πνεύματι (became strong in spirit) – Byz

Luke 2:41

οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ (his parents) – almost all manuscripts,[7] including most Byzantine and Alexandrian ones[11]
ὁ τε Ἰωσὴφ καὶ ἡ Μαριάμ (both Joseph and Mary) – 1012, a, b, g1, 1, r1, and some Diatessarons.[7]
(his mother) – it (Old Latin) manuscripts c and ff2[7]
(his kinsfolk) – syrs, syrp, Arabic Diatessaron[7]

Luke 2:42[12]

ἀναβάντων αὐτῶν (they went up) – Alexandrian text-type
ἀναβάντων αὐτῶν εἰς Ἰεροσόλυμα (they went up to Jerusalem) – Byz

Luke 2:43[13]

οὐκ ἔγνωσαν οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ. (his parents didn't know it.) – Alexandrian text-type.[13] 01, B, D, L, W, θ[4]
οὐκ ἔγνω Ἰωσὴφ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ· (Joseph and his mother didn't know it.) – Byz.[13] A, C, Ψ, 0130, ƒ13, it, syrp, h, copbo(MSS)[4] E, Π, 565[7]
(his kinfolk didn't know it.) – syrs[4]

Luke 2:48

Ἰδού, ὁ πατήρ σου κἀγὼ ὀδυνώμενοι (ἐ)ζητοῦμεν σε. (Look, your father and I have been anxiously searching you.) – almost all manuscripts,[14] including most Byzantine and Alexandrian ones[15]
Ἰδού, οἱ σῠγγενεῖς σου κἀγὼ ὀδυνώμενοι (ἐ)ζητοῦμεν σε. (Look, your relatives and I have been anxiously searching you.) – Cvid, β, ε[14]
Οδυνώμενοι (ἐ)ζητοῦμεν σε. ([We] have been anxiously searching you.) – a, b, ff2, g2, 1, r1[14]
Ἰδού, ἡμεῖς ὀδυνώμενοι (ἐ)ζητοῦμεν σε. (Look, we have been anxiously searching you.) – syrc[14]

1 Textual variants in Luke 3
Luke 3:8
καὶ μὴ ἄρξησθε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς (And do not begin to say to yourselves) – א, A, C, B [w], D, W, Δ, Ξ,

θ, K, M, N, U, Δ, Λ, Π, 33, 157, 579, 28, 565, 700, 1071, 1424, u[w]t

καὶ μὴ δόξητε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς (And do not think to say to yourselves) – L, Ψ
καὶ μὴ δόξησθε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς (And do not think to yourself to say to yourselves) – Γ

1 Textual variants in Luke 4
Luke 4:17
ἀνοίξας (opened) – B, A, L, W, Ξ, 33, 892, 1195, 1241, 547, syrs, h, pal, copsa, bo
ἀναπτύξας (unrolled) – א, Dc, K, Δ, Θ, Π, Ψ, f1, f13, 28, 565, 700, 1009, 1010, 1071, 1079, 1216, 1230, 1242, 1253, 1344, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz
ἁπτύξας (touched) – D*

2 Textual variants in Luke 5
Luke 5:26 in Codex Nitriensis (Scrivener's facsimile)

Luke 5:26

και εκστασις ελαβεν απαντας και εδοξαζον τον θεον (And ecstasy took hold of them all, and they were glorifying God) – omitted by D M S W X Ψ Ω* 13 69 118 124 157 174 205 209 579 788 1241 itd,e

Luke 5:39

verse omitted by D itmss

1 Textual variants in Luke 6
Luke 6:4
Codex Bezae contains the following addition immediately after Luke 6:4.
Τη αυτη ημερα θεασαμενος τινα εργαζομενον τω σαββατω ειπεν αυτω ανθρωπε, ει μεν οιδας τι ποιεις, μακαριος ει ει δε μη οιδας, επικαταρατος και παραβατης ει του νομου. – D
Eodem die videns quendam operantem sabbato et dixit illi: Homo, siquidem scis, quod facis, beatus es, si autem nescis, maledictus et trabaricator legis. – d
On that same day, seeing someone working on the Sabbath, he (Jesus) said to him, "Man, if you know what you do, blessed are you; but if you do not know, you are cursed and a transgressor of the law."

2 Textual variants in Luke 7
Luke 7:7
διο ουδε εμαυτον ηξιωσα προς σε ελθειν (For this reason I did not deem myself worthy to come to you) – omitted by D 700* itmss syrs

Luke 7:13

ο Ιησους (Jesus) – D W f1 700 1241 itf vgmss syrs,p cobo
ο κυριος (the lord) – rell

2 Textual variants in Luke 8
Luke 8:26
Γερασηνων (Gerasenes) – 𝔓75 B D 0267 latt cosa,boms
Γεργεσηνων (Gergesenes) – א L X Θ Ξ f1 22 33 157 579 700* 1241 1342 syrpal cobo arm geo Eusebius Epiphanius
Γαδαρηνων (Gadarenes) – A R W Δ Ψ 0135 f13 700c 1071 Byz syr goth

Luke 8:43

ιατροις προσαναλωσασα ολον τομ βιον (and had spent all her living upon physicians) – omitted by 𝔓75 B (D) 0279 syrs,pal cosa arm geo Origen

3 Textual variants in Luke 9
Luke 9:35
ἐκλελεγμένος (Elect One) – 𝔓45 𝔓75 א B L Ξ 892 1241 a aur ff2 l vgst syrs
εκλεκτος (elected) – Θ f1 1365
αγαπητος (beloved) – A C K P W X Δ Π f13 28 33 565 700 Byz Marcion
αγαπητος εν ο ευδοκησα (beloved one in whom I am well-pleased) – C3 D Ψ 19 31 47 48 49 49m 183 183m 211m

Luke 9:54[16]

, ὡς καὶ Ἠλίας ἐποίησε(ν); (", just like Elias did?") – Byz: Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550, Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894, RP Byzantine Majority Text 2005, Greek Orthodox Church
omitted by Alexandrian text-type: Westcott and Hort 1881, Westcott and Hort / [NA27 and UBS4 variants], Tischendorf 8th Edition 1864–94, Nestle 1904

Luke 9:55-56

στραφεις δε επετιμησεν αυτοις (but He turned and rebuked them) – 𝔓45 𝔓75 א B C L W X Δ Ξ Ψ 28 33 565 892 1009 1010 1071 Byzpt Lect
στραφεις δε επετιμησεν αυτοις και ειπεν, Ουκ οιδατε ποιου πνευματος εστε (but He turned and rebuked them and He said: "You do not know what manner of spirit you are of) – D ( 1127m) d geo
στραφεις δε επετιμησεν αυτοις καὶ εἶπεν, Οὑκ οἴδατε οἵου πνεύματος ἑστε ὐμεῖς; ὀ γὰρ υἰὸς τοῦ ἁνθρώπου οὑκ ἦλθεν ψυχὰς ἁνθρώπων ἁπολέσαι ἁλλὰ σῶσαι (but He turned and rebuked them and He said: "You do not know what manner of spirit you are of; for the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them) – K Π 1079 1242 1546 (f1 omit γαρ) (Θ f13 omit υμεις and γαρ)

1 Textual variants in Luke 10
Luke 10:41-42
instead μεριμνας και θορυβαζη περι πολλα, ολιγων (ενος) δε εστιν χρεια Μαριαμ γαρ (you are worried and being troubled about many things Miriam, but not much (one thing) is needed) has only θορυβαζη (you are being troubled) with (D has also Μαριὰμ Miriam) (a, b, d, e, ff2, i, l, r1, syrs, Ambrose omit θορυβαζη)

2 Textual variants in Luke 11
Luke 11:2
ἐλθέτω τὸ πνεῦμα σου τὸ ἄγιον εφ ημας και καθαρισατω ημας (May your Holy Spirit come upon us and purify us) – 162, 700
ἐφ ἡμᾶς ἐλθέτω σου ἡ βασιλεία (let thine kingdom come upon us) – D, itd
ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου (May your kingdom come) – A, B, K, L, X, Θ, Π, Ψ, f1, 28, 33, (565, 1253), 892, 1009, 1010, 1071, 1079, 1195, 1216, 1230, 1242, 1344, 1365, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz, Lect, 69, 185, 1127, it, vg, syr, copsa, bo, arm, geo, Origen
ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου (May your kingdom come) – C, P, W, Δ, f13, 1241, (𝔓45 indistinguishable ἐλθάτω or ἐλθέτω)
omit – geo

Luke 11:13

πνευμα αγιον – 𝔓75, א, B, C, K, W, X, Δ, Π, Ψ, f1, f13, 28
πνευμα αγαθον – L 1230 1253 1646, 4, 12, 15, 19, 69, 185, 211
δοματα αγαθα – Θ, 32m

2 Textual variants in Luke 12
Luke 12:14
κριτὴν ἢ μεριστήν (judge or divider) – 𝔓75, א, B, L, 0191, f1, f13, 33, 700, 892, 1241, copsamss
δικαστὴν ἢ μεριστήν (judge or divider) – A, K, W, X, Δ, Θ, Π, Ψ, 565, 1009, 1010, 1071, 1079, 1195, 1216, 1230, 1242, 1253, 1344, 1365, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz
μεριστὴν ἢ δικαστήν (divider or judge) – 472, 1642, eth
κριτὴν ἢ δικαστήν (divider or judge) – 69
ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστήν (ruler and judge) – 157
κριτήν (judge) – D, it(a), c, d
δικαστήν (judge) – 28
μεριστήν (divider) – copsamss

Luke 12:21

verse omitted by – D, a, b, d

0 Textual variants in Luke 13
Luke 13:1

1 Textual variants in Luke 14
Luke 14:5
υἱὸς ἢ βοῦς – 𝔓45, 𝔓75, B, W, Δ, 28, 565, 700
υἱὸς ὑμῶν – 1344, 184, 1579
ὄνος ἢ βοῦς – א, K, L, X, Π, Ψ, f1, f13, 33, 892, 1071, 547
ὄνος υἱὸς ἢ βοῦς – Θ
πρόβατον ἢ βοῦς – D
υἱὸς ἢ βοῦς ἢ ὄνος – 2174, syrc

0 Textual variants in Luke 15
Luke 15:1

0 Textual variants in Luke 16
Luke 16:1

1 Textual variants in Luke 17
Luke 17:36 (see Matt. 24:40)
verse omitted by א, A, B, K, L, W, X, Δ, Θ, Π, Ψ, 063, f1, 28, 33, 565, 892, 1009, 1010, 1079, 1195, 1216, 1242, 1365, Byz, 184, 950, copsa, bo, goth, eth
δύο ἐν ἀγρῷ εἷς παραλημφθήσεται καὶ ὁ ἕτερος ἀφεθήσεται (two in the field; one will be taken and the other left) – D, 1071, 1230, 2174, 185, 1579, it, vg, syr, arm, geo, Diatessarona, i, n
δύο ἔσονται ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ εἷς παραλημφθήσεται καὶ ὁ ἕτερος ἀφεθήσεται (two men will be in the field; one will be taken and the other left) – 700, 1253, 1344
δύο ἔσονται ἐν ἀγρῷ εἷς παραλημφθήσεται καὶ ὁ ἕτερος ἀφεθήσεται (two men will be in the field; one will be taken and the other left) – 1646
δύο ἔσονται ἐν ἀγρῷ εἷς παραλημφθήσεται, ἡ δὲ ἑτέρα ἀφεθήσεται (two will be in the field then; one will be taken, but the other left) – f13

0 Textual variants in Luke 18
Luke 18:1

0 Textual variants in Luke 19
Luke 19:1

0 Textual variants in Luke 20
Luke 20:1

0 Textual variants in Luke 21
Luke 21:1

3 Textual variants in Luke 22
Luke 22:19b-20
τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον... τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον (which is given for you... which is shed for you), omitted by D, a, (b, e have a different word order) d, ff2, i, l (syrcur omits only τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον)

Luke 22:43-44

Luke 22:62

verse omitted by a, b, e, ff2, i, l, r1 (0171 does not appear to leave space)

0 Textual variants in Luke 23
Luke 23:47
Codex Bezae, contains text Luke 23:47-24:1 (paraphrastic)

10 Textual variants in Luke 24
Luke 24:3
τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ (of the Lord Jesus) – 𝔓75, א, A, B, C, K, L, W, X, Δ, Θ, Π, Ψ, 0124, f1, f13, 28, 33, 565, 700, 892, 1009, 1010, Byz, Lect, itaur, c, f, q, vg
του Ιησου (Jesus) – 579, 1071, 1241, syrcur
omitted by D, a, b, d, e, ff2, l, r1

Luke 24:6

οὐκ ἔστιν ὢδε, ἀλλ(ὰ) ἠγέρθη (He is not here, but is risen), omitted by D, a, b, d, e, ff2, l, r1, armmss, geoB

Luke 24:9

απο του μνημειου (from the tomb), omitted by D, a, b, c, d, e, ff2, l, r1, arm, geo

Luke 24:12

verse omitted by D, a, b, d, e, l, r1

Luke 24:26

δοξαν – majority of mss
βασιλειαν – 𝔓75

Luke 24:36

καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς εἰρήνη ὑμῖν (and said to them: Peace unto you) – mss of Alexandrian, Casarean, and Byzantine text-types
omitted by D, a, b, d, e, ff2, l, r1

Luke 24:40

καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν ἔδειξεν αὐτοῖς τὰς χειρᾶς καὶ τοὺς πόδας (and when He said this, He showed them His hands and His feet), omitted by D, a, b, d, e, ff2, l, r1, syrs, syrcur

Luke 24:51

καὶ ἀνεφέρετο εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν (and taken up into heaven), omitted by א*, D, a, b, d, e, ff2, l
hiatus in r1, syrs (syrcur) geo1

Luke 24:52 – προσκυνήσαντες αὐτὸν (upon worshiping Him), omitted by D, a, b, d, e, ff2, l (hiat r1), syrs (syrcur), geo2

Luke 24:53

εὐλογοῦντες τὸν θεόν ("blessing God") – Alexandrian
αἰνουντες τὸν θεόν ("praising God") – Western
αἰνουντες καὶ εὐλογοῦντες τὸν θεόν ("praising and blessing God") – Byz. mss

See also

References

  1. ^ Adam Fox, John Mill and Richard Bentley: A Study of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament 1675–1729 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1954), pp. 105–115; John Mill, Novum Testamentum Graecum, cum lectionibus variantibus MSS (Oxford 1707)
  2. ^ Metzger and Ehrman (2005), p.154
  3. ^ Peter J. Gurry, "The Number of Variants in the Greek New Testament: A Proposed Estimate" New Testament Studies 62.1 (2016), p. 113
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Head, P. M. (April 1993). "Christology and Textual Transmission: Reverential Alterations in the Synoptic Gospels". Novum Testamentum. Brill. 35 (2): 105–129. doi:10.2307/1560881. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  5. ^ "Luke 1:28 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  6. ^ "Luke 1:29 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture (1993), p. 56, 118. (e-book)
  8. ^ "Luke 2:27 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  9. ^ a b c "Luke 2:33 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  10. ^ "Luke 2:40 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  11. ^ "Luke 2:41 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  12. ^ "Luke 2:42 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  13. ^ a b c "Luke 2:43 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  14. ^ a b c d Ehrman 1993, p. 55, 118.
  15. ^ "Luke 2:48 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  16. ^ "Luke 9:54 Text Analysis". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 5 September 2021.

Further reading

External links

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