Travel restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic

restriction on international travel imposed by a country in response to the COVID-19 pandemic

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As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries and regions have imposed quarantines, entry bans, or other restrictions for citizens of or recent travelers to the most affected areas.[1] Other countries and regions have imposed global restrictions that apply to all foreign countries and territories, or prevent their own citizens from travelling overseas.[2]

Together with a decreased willingness to travel, the restrictions have had a negative economic and social impact on the travel sector in those regions. A possible long-term impact has been a decline of business travel and international conferencing, and the rise of their virtual, online equivalents.[3] Concerns have been raised over the effectiveness of travel restrictions to contain the spread of COVID-19.[4]

The European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zone and introducing border controls with Italy,[5] a decision which has been criticised by some European politicians.[6][7] After some EU member states announced complete closure of their national borders to foreign nationals,[8] the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said that "Certain controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not seen as being the most effective by the World Health Organization."[9] A few days later the EU closed its external borders.[10]

A study in Science found that travel restrictions had only modest effects, delaying the initial spread of COVID-19, unless combined with infection prevention and control measures to considerably reduce transmissions.[11] Researchers came to the conclusion that "travel restrictions are most useful in the early and late phase of an epidemic" and "restrictions of travel from Wuhan unfortunately came too late".[12]

Countries and territories implementing a global travel ban

Africa

  • Algeria: All international flights to Algeria are suspended.[13] Sea travel with Europe has also been suspended.[14]
  • The Gambia: Closed its sole land border with Senegal, and closed its airspace to most flights.[15]
  • Madagascar: Madagascar has suspended all flights with the exception of medical evacuations, repatriations outside of the country, and cargo shipments.[16]
  • Mali: On 18 March 2020, President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita suspended flights from affected countries, closed schools, and banned large public gatherings.[17]
  • Mauritius: Passengers are not allowed to transit or enter Mauritius.[18]
  • Morocco: On 15 March 2020, Morocco suspended all international passenger flights to and from the country.[19]
  • Sudan: Effective 17 March 2020, Sudan declared a state of emergency and closed all airports and land borders.[20]

Americas

  • Argentina: Borders closed to non-residents, effective 15 March.[21]
  • Bolivia: Effective 20 March, Borders closed to foreigners and international flights were cancelled.[22]
  • British Virgin Islands: Passengers are not allowed to enter British Virgin Islands. International borders will remain closed at least until 1st December 2020.[23]
  • Canada: Borders are closed to all travellers who are not citizens, permanent residents or U.S. citizens. Exceptions are placed for diplomats, crew and immediate family members of citizens with clearing a basic health assessment by air operators.[24] The U.S. and Canada later agreed to close the Canada–United States border to non-essential traffic.[25] Effective midnight 25 March 2020, the Canadian government announced an Emergency Order under the Quarantine Act that requires any person entering Canada by air, sea or land to self-isolate for 14 days whether or not they have symptoms of COVID-19.[26]
  • Chile: Passengers are not allowed to enter Chile.[27]
  • Cuba: Effective 24 March 2020, borders closed to all non-residents; only Cuban and foreign residents will be allowed to enter the country.[28][29]
  • Montserrat: Passengers are not allowed to enter Montserrat. International borders remain closed.[30]
  • Paraguay: Paraguay has restricted all flights into the country.[31]
  • Suriname: Closed its borders for all persons and flights starting 14 March.[32]
  • Trinidad and Tobago: On 23rd March 2020 12:00am, Trinidad and Tobago closed its borders to Everyone. Exemptions are now being processed for Trinidad & Tobago Citizens and Permanent residents Only,[33] International borders in Trinidad and Tobago will remain closed at least until 30th April 2021.[34]
  • Uruguay: Borders closed to non-residents, effective 1 April.[35]
  • Venezuela: Borders closed to non-residents, effective 10 April.[36] This excludes humanitarian, medevac, and repatriation flights.[37]

Asia

  • Azerbaijan: Effective 23 March 2020, passengers are not allowed to enter Azerbaijan except passengers with a work permit and passengers with a special permission issued by the government of Azerbaijan.[38]
  • Armenia: Armenia has restricted the entry of all foreign nationals.[39]
  • Bhutan: Effective 24 March 2020, all foreigners are not allowed to enter Bhutan on all border checkpoints.[40]
  • Brunei: Effective 24 March 2020, all foreigners are not allowed to enter Brunei on all border checkpoints, including those on transit purposes.[41][42]
  • Cambodia: Foreign nationals are not allowed to enter Cambodia.[43]
  • Georgia: The Georgian government imposed a ban on all foreign citizens entering the country and closed its borders. Georgia also halted all air travel with other countries on 20 March.[44][45]
  • Hong Kong: Closed its borders to all non-residents on March 24.[46] All non-Hong Kong residents who have been in overseas countries/territories (i.e. excluding mainland China, Macau and Taiwan) in the past 14 days are barred from entering Hong Kong, with exceptions provided for certain groups of non-Hong Kong residents such as spouses and minor children of Hong Kong residents as well as Macao residents who are registered under the Macao scheme under agreement between the Macau and the Hong Kong Government, and passengers are no longer allowed to transit through Hong Kong International Airport starting from 25 March 2020. This restriction was lifted on June 1 2020. Non-Hong Kong residents arriving from mainland China, Macau and Taiwan who have not been in any overseas countries/territories in the past 14 days are exempted from the ban, but they are still subject to compulsory quarantine for 14 days same as all other arrivals to Hong Kong.[47] Since Chinese tourists are only allowed to stay in Hong Kong with a valid visa for maximum 7 days, they are also banned from entering the territory. Effective 19 March 2020, all persons arriving in Hong Kong who have been to Mainland China or any overseas countries/territories (excluding Macao and Taiwan) in the past 14 days, regardless of whether they are Hong Kong residents, are subject to compulsory quarantine.[48] Effective 25 March 2020, all persons arriving in Hong Kong, regardless of whether they are Hong Kong residents, are subject to compulsory quarantine.[49]
  • India: Flights to India are suspended from 00:01 GMT 22 March 2020 until further notice.[50][51] This does not apply to flights that carry goods for trade or essential goods and supplies, and their crew members, helpers, cleaners etc.
  • Indonesia: Effective 1 April 2020, all foreigners (except residents, family connection, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods) are not allowed to enter Indonesia on all border checkpoints, including those on transit purposes.[52]
  • Iran: Closed its borders to all non-residents, the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) has halted permits for all Tourist, Business, and Medical Visas.[53]
  • Israel: Effective 12 March 2020, foreign travellers from any country are denied entry, unless a specific permit is given by the Foreign Ministry and the person can prove the ability to remain under home isolation for 14 days. Israeli citizens and permanent residents are required to enter 14-day home isolation.[54]
  • Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan has restricted the entry of most foreign nationals and suspended most flights except for state flights.[55]
  • Kuwait: Effective 13 March 2020, Kuwait closed its borders to all non-residents. All flights to Kuwait were suspended.[56]
  • Laos: Closed its borders to all non-residents. All flights to Laos and visa applications were suspended.[57]
  • Malaysia: All citizens are prohibited from leaving the country while foreigners are prohibited from entering the country effective 18 March 2020. Malaysians are allowed to return to the country. Airports and airspace remain open.[58]
  • Mongolia: Effective 12 March, non-citizens are prohibited to enter.[59]As of 21 August, a total entry ban is in place.[60]
  • Myanmar: Closed its borders to all non-residents. All flights to Myanmar and visa applications were suspended.[61]
  • Nepal: Effective 24 March 2020, Nepal closed its borders to all non-residents. Nepal had suspended all international flights until at least 21 July.[62] This was later rescheduled to 17 August.[63]
  • North Korea Closed its borders to all international tourists on 21 January 2020, one of the first countries to do so. Chinese visitors make up the bulk of foreign tourists to North Korea.[64] Also tightened/closed their border with mainland China.[65]
  • Oman: Closed its borders to all non-residents. All flights to Oman and visa applications were suspended.[66]
  • Palestine: Tourist ban of West Bank from 5 March 2020 for 14 days.[67]
  • Philippines: Visa issuance and visa-free entry for all foreign nationals are temporarily suspended as of 19 March 2020.[68] As of 22 March, all foreign visitors are barred from entry, with exceptions for foreign spouses and children of Filipino citizens, diplomatic officials, and workers for international organizations.[69][70] Foreigners with long term visas will be allowed entry with restriction starting 1 August.[71]
  • Qatar: On 15 March, Qatar said it would ban inbound flights, except for cargo and transit flights, starting from 18 March. The entry ban does not apply to Qatari citizens. Nationals of Qatar are not allowed to exit the country.
  • Saudi Arabia: All international flights suspended, except in exceptional cases, for a period of two weeks, as of 15 March 2020.[72] The Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs recently issued a statement announcing that all religious visits (Umrah) to the sacred Muslim sites of Mecca and Medina have to be cancelled or postponed for the time being.
  • Singapore: Effective 20 March 2020, all arrivals from abroad will be issued Stay-Home Notices lasting 14 days.[73] All foreigners are prohibited entry and transit starting from 23 March, 11:59 pm. Only people working in essential services like healthcare services and transport will be allowed into Singapore during this time.[74] From 1 September 2020, travel restrictions will be eased in stages. Only business travellers from Brunei or New Zealand will be allowed, lower-risk countries will see SHN reduced to 7 days, and later on, personal travellers that is not available virtually are allowed.[75]
  • Sri Lanka: Effective 8 April 2020, visas and ETAs issued by Sri Lanka have been invalidated.[76] All airports in Sri Lanka are closed.[77]
  • Taiwan: Effective 19 March, non-citizens are prohibited to enter unless specifically approved.[78]
  • Tajikistan: Flights to and from the country have been suspended since March 20. On April 12, Tajik authorities announced a ban on the entry and exit of all foreign nationals.[79][80]
  • Thailand: Effective 26 March 2020, all non-residents are prohibited to enter Thailand, except airline crew with pre-existing schedules, diplomats and their family members, passengers with a work permit and passengers with a waiver from PM or PIC of State of Emergency.[81] All passengers arriving from outside Thailand are subject to a 14-day home quarantine.[82]
  • Timor-Leste: Timor-Leste has restricted the entry of all travelers except for nationals and residents of Timor-Leste.[83]
  • Turkmenistan: Starting 20 March, the national border of Turkmenistan is restricted to foreign citizens and stateless persons. If necessary, during the specified period, the following categories of persons can enter the territory of Turkmenistan in accordance with applicable norms and rules: diplomats of foreign countries, representatives of international organizations, crews of aircraft and ships, freight transport drivers engaged in international transit transport, members of work crews on railway ways and foreign representatives working at business facilities; located in the territory of Turkmenistan.[84]
  • Vietnam: Effective 22 March 2020, entry of all foreigners is suspended until further notice. Temporary suspension of entry will also be applied to all overseas Vietnamese and their spouses and children who have been granted with certificate of visa exemption.[85]
  • Yemen: On 17 March 2020, Yemen suspended all flights and closed land crossings.[86]

Europe

Oceania

  • Australia: Borders closed to all non-citizens and non-residents of Australia, effective 20 March 2020 21:00 hours.[89] Australian citizens and permanent residents are not permitted to depart Australia without being granted an exemption from the Australian Border Force. The Australian Government has announced that any person – regardless of citizenship or residency status – travelling to Australia from any international destination will be required to undergo a compulsory 14-day quarantine, beginning from their date of arrival. The regulations, effective from 16 March 2020, also ban cruise ships arriving from international waters from docking at any Australian port.[90]
  • Marshall Islands: Passengers were not allowed to enter Marshall Islands until 5 May 2020.[91]
  • New Caledonia: Passengers except parents of a French minor and spouses of a national of France are not allowed to enter New Caledonia.[92]
  • New Zealand: Borders closed to all non-citizens and non-residents including the previously exempt Pacific Islands or temporary visa holders (such as students) from 23:59 19 March 2020.[93][94] Beginning 15 March, any person entering New Zealand from overseas, including New Zealand citizens, would be required to self-isolate for 14 days following entry, except for those travelling from the Pacific Islands unless they are displaying symptoms. All cruise ships were banned.[95]
  • Fiji: Borders closed to all non-citizens.[96]
  • Tuvalu: Tuvalu's borders are closed.[97]
  • Vanuatu: Vanuatu ports of entry are closed from 20 March 2020.[98]

Non-global restrictions

Many countries have implemented measures that affect citizens of, or recent travellers to, a particular country or set of countries. Many of these countries later expanded their restrictions, with some later implementing global restrictions that may be listed above.

Africa

  • Seychelles: As of 1 June, the Seychelles have reopened to tourists from 19 countries. As of 28 September, the country have reopened to tourists from 32 countries. All travelers need to present a negative COVID-19 test.[99]
  • Tunisia: Tunisia is officially reopening its borders June 27, 2020 allowing tourists to enter based on a color-coded system based on risk assessment.[100]

Americas

A nearly empty flight from Beijing to Los Angeles in March 2020. By that time, most people other than US citizens and residents were prohibited from going to the United States from China.
  • Aruba: As of 1 July 2020, Aruba has reopen borders for citizens of the Caribbean, Europe, United States and Canada.[101]
  • Costa Rica: Costa Rica, began opening to foreign tourism on August 1, with the arrival of visitors from the European Union, the United Kingdom and Canada. Later, some Asian countries, Australia, New Zealand and Uruguay were added. Starting in September, U.S. citizens began arriving from some states.[102]
  • Guadeloupe: As of 1 July 2020, all nations are permitted to enter Guadeloupe for tourism with the exception of: USA, Brazil, India, Israel, Russia, and Turkmenistan.[103]
  • Peru: After a 7-month lockdown, Peru has reopened its international borders for tourism to Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay from October 5.[104]
  • United States: On 31 January 2020, the United States declared the virus a public health emergency. People other than U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and their immediate family were prohibited from entering the U.S. within 14 days of being in China.[105][106] On 2 February, all inbound passengers who had been to Hubei in the previous 14 days were placed under quarantine for up to 14 days. American citizens who have traveled to the rest of mainland China were allowed to continue their travel home if they were asymptomatic, but would be monitored by local health departments.[107] From 2 March, foreign nationals who have traveled to Iran within the past 14 days were denied permission to enter the U.S.[108] American citizens and permanent residents returning to the United States who had travelled to Iran within the previous 14 days had to enter through an approved airport.[108][43] On 13 March at 23:59 ET, incoming travel from the Schengen area in Europe was suspended.[109] The official proclamation on 11 March stated that this restriction applied only to foreign nationals traveling to the United States, if they have been to a country within the Schengen area in the past 14 days. The ban does not apply to, for example, legal permanent residents and most immediate family members of U.S. citizens.[109] Also, cargo and trading goods were not affected.[110][111] On 14 March, the Trump administration extended the ban to include the United Kingdom and Ireland.[112] The restrictions were put in place for a period of 30 days,[113] however the official proclamation did not contain that time limit, stating; "This proclamation shall remain in effect until terminated by the President."[109] The move was criticized by EU leaders.[114] Effective 29 May, foreigners coming from Brazil were restricted from entering the US.[115] Overall, The United States has restricted the entry of all foreign nationals who have visited Brazil, China, Iran, the Schengen Area, Ireland, or the United Kingdom in the past 14 days. On 6 August the U.S. Department of State lifted a Level 4 Global health travel advisory issued on 19 March which advised all American Citizens to avoid all international travel.[116][117]

Asia

  • China: Effective 5 August 2020, South Korea became the first and only country China has lifted entry restriction since refusing entry to non-Chinese citizens since 28 March.[118] During the entry ban, all visas and resident permits issued before and valid on 28 March could not be used for entry into China and new visas would only be issued for a limited scope of applicants. Permanent residence permits were not affected from the entry restriction.[119] Visa applications from South Korean students and workers are currently accepted and South Koreans with a valid residence permit for China are also allowed to apply for re-entry.[120] On 10 August 2020, the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Denmark announcing that people of 36 European countries, namely Italy, Albania, Ireland, Estonia, Austria, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Belgium, Iceland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Poland, Denmark, Germany, France, Finland, Netherlands, Montenegro, Czech Republic, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Romania, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Serbia, Cyprus, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Greece, Hungary, and the United Kingdom can apply for a Chinese visa free of charge if their Chinese residence permit is still valid.[121] Other Chinese Embassies in European countries have made similar announcements the day after, such as the Embassy of China in Berlin, Paris and Rome.[122][123][124]
  • Japan: Passengers who have been in Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, D.R. Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Kosovo (Rep.), Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Moldova (Rep.), Monaco, Morocco, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Oman, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Vatican or Vietnam in the past 14 days are subject to an entry ban (foreign citizens incl. residents of Japan) or quarantine (Japanese citizens and Special Permanent Residents).[125]
  • Jordan: As of 8 September 2020, Jordan is officially open for tourism. A total of 43 countries are allowed to enter Jordan for tourism.[126]
  • Kyrgyzstan: As of 21 August, Kyrgyzstan is allowing residents from 31 countries to visit.[127]
  • Macau: Entry denied to all travellers except residents of mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan.[128] Effective on 17 March, all arrivals who had been to countries/areas outside mainland China, Hong Kong or Taiwan within the past 14 days prior to their entry into Macao must have underwent medical observation at a designated venue for 14 days. Effective 25 March, all persons who had been to Hong Kong or Taiwan within the past 14 days prior to their entry into Macao must have underwent medical observation at a designated venue for 14 days. Effective 17 June 2020, all persons who had been to Beijing within the past 14 days prior to their entry into Macao must have underwent medical observation at a designated venue for 14 days.[129]
  • South Korea Effective 1 April 2020, all passengers were subject to mandatory self-quarantine for 14 days. This did not apply to airline crew.[130] Effective 13 April, citizens of countries that restricted visa-free travel for South Koreans would not be allowed visa-free travel in South Korea.[131] Visas issued on or before 5 April are invalidated.[132] South Korea had restricted the entry of all travelers who have been in the Hubei Province of China in the past 14 days. Chinese nationals with passports issued in the Hubei Province were also not allowed to enter the country.
  • Uzbekistan: Uzbekistan has resumed international flights for certain categories of travelers from countries deemed to have a stable epidemiological situation. The complete list of countries includes the EU, Japan, South Korea, China, Israel, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Russia and CIS countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Tajikistan). Quarantine rules apply differently depending on which country the traveler is arriving from: Japan, South Korea, China and Israel: No quarantine required. European Union, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore: 14-day self-quarantine at home. UAE, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Russia and CIS countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan): Government quarantine[133]

Europe

  • Moldova: As of 1 September, Moldova open the border for citizens of 53 countries.[134]
  • Russia: As of 23 September, Russia has reopened its borders to nationals and residents of 11 countries, allowing tourists to visit. All passengers from approved countries must have a negative PCR test, taken no longer than 72 hours before arrival. [135]
  • European Union/Schengen Area: The European Council agreed on 17 March to ban incoming travel other than citizens from countries in the European Union, European Economic Area, Switzerland and United Kingdom, long-term residents and people with long-term visa or residence permits, family members of EU and EEA citizens, medical personnel and people responsible for transport of goods for 30 days.[10][136][137] Each country has to implement the decision on the national level. Ireland choose to opt out from the decision due to the Common Travel Area. The agreement was to close borders for 30 days starting at noon on 17 March, though enforcement did not begin immediately as planned.[138] By the end of March, all EU member states (except Ireland) and all associated Schengen states (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) had introduced the travel restriction.[139] The restriction was later repeatedly prolonged until 30 June.[140][141][142] Some member states went even further and also prohibited EU and EEA citizens from entering, unless they are permanently living in the country or transiting to their home country, which is generally still possible. On 1 July, global travel ban was replaced by non-global.[143] The EU Council recommends a gradual lifting of the temporary restrictions on travel into the EU (including Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) from 1 July 2020. Travelers from the following countries are again allowed to cross EU-borders and the Schengen area: Algeria, Australia, Canada, Georgia, Japan, Jordan, Morocco, Montenegro, New Zealand, Rwanda, Serbia, South Korea, Thailand, Tunisia and Uruguay. Traveling citizens from China will be allowed entry based on the re-opening of its borders to European travelers.[144] British nationals are considered EU-citizens until the end of 2020, and for the purpose of the recommendation should residents of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican also be considered as EU residents. The recommendation is not a legally binding instrument and the member states are responsible for implementing it.[143]
    • Austria: Closed land borders for persons not having medical certificate confirming negative test for SARS-CoV-2 within the last four days. Visitors arriving by air without proof of recently testing negative will be allowed into the country, but then placed in mandatory quarantine for 14 days or until they test negative.[145] Travel restrictions between Hungary], Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia were lifted for their citizens on 5 June.[146][147] Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland: On 15 June the four neighbouring countries fully reopened borders with one another.[148]
    • Belgium: Closed its borders to non-essential travel on 20 March.[149]
    • Bulgaria: A temporary ban on entry imposed on all persons arriving from Italy, Spain, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and non-EU/Schengen countries. Visitors from some countries can transit through Bulgaria to return home.[150] The government agreed with the Greek and Serbian governments on opening borders for all travel starting 1 June, with no self-quarantine requirement.[151][152]
    • Croatia: Closed its borders to non-citizens on 19 March.[153] The country reopened its borders to travellers from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia, Germany and Slovakia on 29 May.[154][154]
    • Czech Republic: Partially closed its borders to travellers from high-risk countries on 14 March.[155] Closed its borders to all non-residents on 16 March.[156] From 24 April, EU nationals were allowed to enter for short business trips or study, but only with a recent negative COVID-19 test.[157][158] On 26 May, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary mutually reopened their borders to each other's citizens, whose stay in the other country does not exceed 48 hours, without the imposed quarantine.[159] On 4 June, Czech Republic and Slovakia fully reopened mutual border to their citizens;[160] a day later, the Czech Republic lifted border restrictions for residents of Austria, Germany, and Hungary.[161] On 15 June, opened its borders to citizens of most EU/Schengen countries.[162]
    • Cyprus: The Cypriot government announced that only its citizens, along with other Europeans working on the island and people with special permits will be allowed into the country for a 15-day period beginning on 15 March.[163] This ban was extended until 30 April 2020.[164] Commercial flights in and out of the country have been banned until 28 May.[165] The government has declared a two-phased travel resumption for two groups of selected European countries. Starting from 9 June, passengers from either group can enter the country with a virus-negative certificate issued three days prior to their departure. From 20 June, the first group will be exempt from this health requirement.[151]
    • Denmark: Closed its borders to all non-citizens 14 March.[166] This includes a ban on crossing the border for all tourism, but exempts travellers with "credible purpose" such as non-citizen Danish residents.[166] On 15 June, Denmark opened up to people travelling from Norway,[167] Iceland and Germany. Denmark opened its borders to the remaining EU/Schengen countries with low infection rates starting 27 June. To qualify, a country must have had less than 20 infected out of 100 000 per week. Special rules apply to the other Nordic countries; if a country does not qualify as a whole, the borders will be open to regions qualifying. Special rules also apply to border regions in Sweden and Germany; even if the regions do not qualify it will still be possible to enter Denmark after submitting a negative test result.[168] From 4 July, all of Norway is considered a border region.[169] Travelers must have booked a stay for at least six nights to enter Denmark, people living in the border regions (as listed above) are exempted from the requirement.[170]
    • Estonia: Effective 17 March 2020, foreign travellers are not allowed to enter. Right of entry will remain for citizens and those with a right of residence, and foreign citizens whose next of kin live in Estonia. Transit is allowed for foreigners not showing signs of the coronavirus. A mandatory two-week quarantine will be set for anyone entering the country, with the exception of Latvians and Lithuanians from 15 May.[171] On 15 May, the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all opened their borders to each other's citizens. There was no border check between Latvia and Lithuania, effective from 1 June.[151] Estonia reopened its borders to the rest of the EU and the UK on June 1; those travelling from countries with a high infection rate will have to self-isolate for two weeks.[172]
    • Finland: Closed its borders on 19 March 2020, except for Finnish citizens returning to Finland, foreigners returning to their countries of origin, essential work-related travel, and goods. Finnish citizens returning home are recommended to quarantine themselves for 14 days after arrival.[173] Finland reopened its borders to workers from the Schengen zone on 14 May.[174] Finland welcomes leisure travelers from Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway beginning 15 June, travelers from these countries do not need to self-quarantine. Work-related, essential travel and return traffic is possible from EU and Schengen countries and the UK.[175] Finland reopen its borders to the Netherlands, Andorra, Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Austria, Greece, Cyprus, Liechtenstein, Malta, Germany, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Hungary and the Vatican from 13 July. Work-related, essential travel and return traffic is possible from EU/Schengen/UK and Algeria, Australia, Georgia, Japan, New Zealand, Rwanda, South Korea, Thailand, Tunisia, Uruguay and China.[176]
    • France: Banned all non-essential travel into the country on 6 April.[177] Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland: On 15 June the four neighbouring countries fully reopened borders with one another.[148]
    • Germany: Effective 16 March 2020, Germany has partially closed its borders with Austria, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, and Switzerland. However, goods will continue to flow between the countries to curb panic-buying.[178] Non-essential travel from Austria, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Switzerland, and non-EU/Schengen countries was banned.[179] The authorities of Germany and Luxembourg announced a complete border opening for citizens, effective from 15 May.[180] Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland: On 15 June the four neighbouring countries fully reopened borders with one another.[148] Germany opened its borders to the nationals of the European Union, UK, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland on 15 June.[181]
    • Greece: Initially suspended all passenger flights to and from Italy on 14 March, excluding cargo and sanitary ones.[182] On 16 March, Greece closed its borders with Albania and North Macedonia, only permitting the transportation of goods and the entry of Greek nationals and permanent residents, suspended ferry services to and from Italy and air links to Spain and prohibited all cruise ships and sailboats docking in Greek ports.[183] The same day it was announced that a 14-day home restriction will be mandatory for those who enter the country.[184] On 23 March, Greece suspended all passenger flights from the UK as well as all air, sea, rail and road connections with Turkey, with an exception for Greek citizens and those who have residence permits, as well as trucks and ships that transport goods.[185] On 28 March, Greece suspended all commercial flights to and from Germany and the Netherlands[186] and on 15 April the Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority extended, until 15 May, the ban on passenger flights to and from Italy, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany. Exemptions include cargo, sanitary, humanitarian, state, military, ferry and Frontex flights, as well as flights in support of the Hellenic National Healthcare System, those for repatriation of Greek citizens and emergency flights.[187][188] Greece opened its borders to tourists from 29 countries on 15 June; the country will also reopen its land borders with Albania, Bulgaria and North Macedonia on the same day.[189] Greece allowed international flights to land at all its airports and arrivals by sea from 1 July.[172]
    • Greenland: Greenland had restricted the entry of all travelers who were not Danish citizens or returning residents since the 13 March.[190] On 14 May 2020 Greenland presented a 3 phase plan for opening up country, and on 21 July entered phase 2 which is valid until 31 December. All travelers are required to show a negative COVID-19 test no older than 5 days and submit a personal "Sumut" location form. The country was divided up into "open", where you would be able to travel freely, and "vulnerable" areas, where one must quarantine and be re-tested for the virus.[191][192]
    • Iceland allowed tourists to arrive from 15 June, however, COVID-19 tests is mandatory.[193] Iceland has restricted the entry of all travelers who are not nationals of EEA Member States, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, Switzerland, Vatican City, or the United Kingdom.
    • Italy: Banned non-essential travel into the country on 28 March. Only travelling for health needs, work requirements and reasons of absolute necessity was allowed.[194] On 3 June, the country opened its borders to people arriving from member countries of the European Union, countries within the Schengen Area, as well as the United Kingdom, and the microstates and principalities of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican.[195][196] On September 8th, reunification with Italian resident partners and fiancés has been allowed for those coming from certain non-European countries.
    • Latvia: Effective 17 March 2020 all international passenger connections by air, railway, sea and road, were to be cancelled. Only Latvians and foreigners with residency rights in Latvia will be able to enter the country from outside the Schengen Area,[197] but entry of foreign citizens by private vehicle from other Schengen member countries was still allowed.[198] On 15 May, the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all opened their borders to each other's citizens. There was no border check between Latvia and Lithuania, effective from 1 June.[151]
    • Lithuania: Closed the border for foreigners, except for those with residence permits, effective 00:00 (UTC+02:00) 16 March.[199] On 15 May, the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all opened their borders to each other's citizens. There was no border check between Latvia and Lithuania, effective from 1 June.[151]
    • Malta: As of 21 March 2020, island of Malta has closed air borders, except ferry flights, cargo flights, humanitarian flights and repatriation flights.[200] Malta resumed international tourism from 1 July for a select group of countries.[201]
    • Norway: Effective 16 March 2020, Norway closed its airports temporarily. Foreigners were turned away, with exemptions made for Norwegians returning from abroad, and for goods.[202] Beginning 17 March 2020, Norway introduced a quarantine obligation for all who arrive in Norway.[203] On 15 June Norway opened the borders to Denmark[167] and regions with low infection rates in the remaining Nordic countries; in addition to Denmark (including the Faroe Islands and Greenland: Iceland, Finland (including Åland Islands) and Sweden. All regions in all Nordic countries were deemed to have low infection rates except in Sweden, where only Gotland qualified.[204] Norway reopened its borders to the remaining EEA/Schengen countries starting 15 July. Travelers arriving from a "red" country/region, with high infection rates, will need self quarantine for 10 days.[205] At the time all EEA/Schengen countries except Portugal, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, Luxembourg and Sweden qualified. In Sweden only the regions Blekinge, Kronoberg and Skåne qualified (Gotland no longer satisfied the requirements).[206] As of 10 October all EU/EEA countries are red, only the Nordic regions Åland, Varsinais-Suomi, Satakunta, Kanta-Häme, Pirkanmaa, Päijät-Häme, Kymenlaakso, South Karelia, Itä-Savo, North Karelia, Pohjois-Savo, South Ostrobothnia, Vaasa, Central Ostrobothnia, North Ostrobothnia, Kainuu, Länsi-Pohja, Lappi, Grønland, Gotland, Kalmar, Norrbotten, Värmland and Västernorrland remain yellow.[207][208]
    • Poland: Effective 15 March, entry ban for all foreigners except for those with residential or work permits, and 14 days' quarantine on all people entering.[209][210][211][212] Poland restored full border traffic within the internal borders of the European Union (Schengen Area, also non-EU member countries included[213]) on 13 June. Borders that are also EU external borders, remain closed but may be crossed by some, notably Polish/EU/EEA/EFTA citizens and their family members, as well as other foreign citizens and their family members with permanent residency in Poland/EU/EEA/EFTA.
    • Portugal: Closed its border with Spain to non-essential travel such as tourism on 16 March.[214]
    • Romania: Effective 22 March 2020, Romania banned foreign citizens from entering the country with the exception of official residents or those who are transiting the country.[215]
    • Slovakia: Closed its borders to all non-residents on 13 March.[216] Closed all three international airports and required all residents returning from abroad to 14 days quarantine in government designated quarantine facility.[216] Violators may be fined up to 1659 EUR.[217] Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic mutually reopened their borders to each other's citizens, whose stay in the other country does not exceed 48 hours, from midnight on 26 May, without the imposed quarantine.[159] Slovakia reopened its border checkpoints with Ukraine on 1 June.[218] On 4 June, Czech Republic and Slovakia fully reopened mutual border to their citizens.[160] Travel restrictions between Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia were lifted for their citizens on 5 June.[146][147] The country opened its borders to visitors from Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Slovenia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Norway, Denmark and Iceland on 10 June.
    • Slovenia: On 11 March, Slovenia restricted movement at the borders with Italy and later with Austria. Non-residents with symptoms needed negative COVID test, not older than three days. Cross-border public transport was suspended. Banned international commercial flights on 17 March.[219][220][221] Slovenia reopened its borders (without quarantine) to Croatian citizens and other persons who have a confirmed booking of overnight accommodation in a tourist facility in Slovenia and don't have signs of infection on 26 May.[222]
    • Spain: Closed borders to non-residents on 17 March.[223] Spain reopen its borders with Schengen zone countries on 22 June; the exception is the border with Portugal which was reopen on 1 July.[224]
    • Sweden: Beginning 19 March 2020, there is an entry ban which applies to all foreign citizens attempting to enter Sweden from all countries except those in the EEA, the UK and Switzerland.[225]
    • Switzerland: Borders closed to foreigners without residential visas or commercial deliveries, unless they are immediately transiting the country, starting 17 March 2020.[226] Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland: On 15 June the four neighbouring countries fully reopened borders with one another.[148]

Countries and territories without entry restrictions

Africa

  • Benin: Benin has resumed most transportation options (including airport operations) and business operations (including day cares and schools), although land borders remain closed to most travelers.[227]
  • Cape Verde: As of 12 October 2020, Cape Verde is officially open for tourism. All travelers must provide the results of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours of arrival.
  • Egypt: As of 1 July 2020, Egypt is officially open for tourism.[228] As of 15 August, all passengers must have a negative COVID-19 test within 72 hours before arrival.[229]
  • Ethiopia: Ethiopia has reopened the airport for international arrivals. Passengers will need to bring a negative PCR test taken within 5 days of arrival. They are also required to self-isolate at home for 14 days.[43][230][231]
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo: As of 15 August 2020, The Democratic Republic of the Congo has resumed commercial flights. All travelers need to present a negative COVID-19 test.
  • Djibouti: As of 18 July 2020, Djiboutian air, sea and land borders have reopened.[232]
  • Ghana: As of 1 September 2020, Ghana is officially open for tourism, all new arrivals must take a coronavirus test 72 hours prior to arrival.[233]
  • Kenya: As of 1 August 2020, Kenya has opened its international airports to regular air traffic. All arriving passengers on international flights whose body temperature is NOT above 37.5 °C (99.5 °F); do NOT have a persistent cough, difficulty in breathing or other flu-like symptoms; have negative PCR based COVID – 19 test carried out within 96 hours before travel and are from countries considered low to medium risk COVID – 19 transmission areas would be exempt from quarantine.[234][235]
  • Liberia: As of 29 June 2020, Liberia has opened its international airport to regular air traffic.[236]
  • Namibia: As of 1 September 2020, Namibia has reopen its international airport to regular air traffic.[237]
  • Nigeria: As of 5 September 2020, Nigeria has reopen its international airports to regular air traffic. All countries can once again enter Nigeria under normal visa rules.[238][239]
  • Republic of the Congo: As of August 24, The Republic of Congo reopened its international airports and international passenger flights have resumed. Travelers entering the Republic of Congo must present a negative COVID-19 test from within 72 hours of departure upon arrival. [240]
  • Rwanda: As of 1 August 2020, Rwanda has opened its international airport to regular air traffic.[241]
  • Sierra Leone: Sierra Leone reopened for tourism on July 22, 2020.[242]
  • South Africa: As of 1 October 2020, South Africa is officially open for tourism, all new arrivals must take a coronavirus test 72 hours prior to arrival.[243]
  • Tanzania: Tanzania has not implemented any entry restrictions.[244]
  • Togo: As of 1 August, Togo reopened its international airport and international passenger flights have resumed. Travelers entering Togo must present a negative COVID-19 test.[245]
  • Uganda: Uganda reopened for tourism on October 1, 2020.[246]
  • Zambia: As of 26 June 2020, Zambia has opened its international airports to regular air traffic. Non-residents entering Zambia must show a negative COVID-19 test result from within the past 14 days.[247]
  • Zimbabwe: As of 1 October 2020, Zimbabwe is officially open for tourism. All arrivals, regardless if they are nationals returning home or foreign tourists, will need to bring a negative PCR test with them, taken no longer than 48 hours before the time of flight departure.[248]

Americas

  • Antigua and Barbuda: Antigua and Barbuda has officially reopened to international visitors on June 4. A negative COVID-19 test is not required in order to enter Antigua and Barbuda, testing will be done upon arrival to all incoming passengers. There is no quarantine required upon arrival.[249]
  • Bahamas: As of 1 July 2020, The Bahamas is officially open for tourism. All travelers must present proof of a negative COVID-19 PCR tes, The test result can not be older than 7 days prior to the date of arrival.[250][251]
  • Barbados: Barbados does not have any entry restrictions. On arrival in Barbados, travelers are required to present evidence of a negative result of a PCR COVID-19 test. If an arriving passenger, does not have a negative test within 72 hours, they will need to get a test at the airport, and then quarantine for up to two days at their own expense until test results come in. If a passenger tests positive, will be put into isolation.[252]
  • Belize: As of 1 October 2020, Belize is officially open for tourism. All passengers, of all nationalities, who meet immigration rules are permitted entry to Belize.[253]
  • Bermuda: As of 1 July 2020, Bermuda has opened its international airport to regular air traffic. All tourists are charged a US$75 fee to cover COVID-19 tests on arrival.[254]
  • Brazil: As of 29 July 2020, Brazil is officially open for tourism.[255]
  • Colombia: As of 19 September 2020, Colombia has opened its international airports to regular air traffic. Travelers are required to present a negative PCR test result issued within 96 hours prior to departure.[256]
  • Dominica: As of 7 August 2020, Dominica is officially open for tourism, but all new arrivals must take a coronavirus test 24–72 hours prior to arrival hours before they travel.[257]
  • Dominican Republic: As of 8 July 2020, Dominican Republic is officially open for tourism.[258]
  • Ecuador: As of 1 June 2020, Ecuador has opened its international airport to regular air traffic.[259]
  • El Salvador: As of 19 September 2020, El Salvador's airports resumed commercial flights. Incoming passengers are required to show a negative PCR coronavirus test no more than three days old.[260]
  • Grenada: As of 1 August 2020, Grenada is officially open for tourism. There are different requirements based on the low, medium and high risk categories of countries. Persons arriving from high-risk areas will be required to show a negative PCR test immediately upon arrival and spend 14 days in quarantine with the option of the last four days in-home quarantine.[261]
  • Guatemala: As of 18 September 2020, Guatemala reopened its domestic and international airports to regular air traffic, as well as official border crossings. Arriving passengers must provide the results of a negative COVID-19 test no more than three days old, except Guatemalan citizens, foreign residents and diplomats at land border crossings.[262][263]
  • Guyana: As of 12 October 2020, Guyana is officially open for tourism.[264][265]
  • Haiti: As of 1 July 2020, Haiti reopened its two international airports in Port-au-Prince and Cape Haitian, as well as four official border crossings.[266]
  • Honduras: As of 17 August 2020, Honduras reopen its domestic and international airports to regular air traffic. Arriving passengers must provide the results of a negative COVID-19 test.[267]
  • Jamaica: As of 15 June 2020, Jamaica is officially open for tourism.[268]
  • Martinique: Martinique does not have any entry restrictions, but all arriving passengers, must quarantine for 14 days.[269]
  • Mexico: Mexico does not have any entry restrictions.[270]
  • Nicaragua: Nicaragua has not implemented any entry restrictions.[271]
  • Panama: As of 12 October 2020, Panama is officially open for tourism. Arriving passengers must provide the results of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 48 hours of arrival. [272]
  • Puerto Rico: Puerto Rico has not implemented any entry restrictions, but all new arrivals must take a coronavirus test 72 hours before they travel.[273]
  • Saint Lucia: As of 4 June 2020, Saint Lucia is officially open for tourism. Arriving passengers must provide the results of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 48 hours of arrival.[274]
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: As of 1 July 2020, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is officially open for tourism. Arriving passengers will be tested upon arrival and must wait 24-hours in hotel for the results.[275]
  • Sint Maarten: As of 1 August 2020, Sint Maarten is officially open for tourism.[276]
  • Turks and Caicos Islands: As of 22 July 2020, Turks And Caicos is officially open for tourism.[277]
  • United States Virgin Islands: As of 1 June 2020, United States Virgin Islands are officially open for tourism. Tourists must undergo temperature checks and health screenings upon entry.[274]

Asia

  • Afghanistan: As of 24 June 2020, Afghanistan resumed international air travel.[278]
  • Bahrain: Effective from September 4, Bahrain re-opens borders to tourists and non-residents from 182 countries. Passengers must undergo a PCR test at their own expense after landing. Those staying in the country for longer than 10 days must take a follow-up test on the 10th day of their visit.[279]
  • Iraq: As of 23 July 2020, Iraq resumed international air travel. All travelers arriving from abroad will be requested to quarantine for 14 days and may be requested to provide proof of reservation in a hotel for the duration of the quarantine period.[280]
  • Lebanon: As of 1 July 2020, Lebanon resumed international air travel. Travelers arriving from countries that do not provide PCR tests ahead of boarding will be tested upon arrival in Lebanon at the airline's expense.[281]
  • Maldives: As of 15 July 2020, Maldives is allowing visitors to travel to the country under normal ‘pre-Covid’ regulations. That includes no isolation period for arriving tourists.[282] With effect from 10th September 2020, arriving passengers must provide the results of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours of arrival.[283]
  • Pakistan: As of 5 October 2020, Pakistan is officially open for tourism. Travelers are required to present a negative PCR test result issued within 96 hours prior to departure.[284]
  • United Arab Emirates: As of 7 July 2020, United Arab Emirates is officially open for tourism. Arriving passengers must provide the results of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 96 hours of arrival or undergo a mandatory PCR test at the Dubai airports.[285]

Europe

  • Albania: Albania officially reopened its borders for tourism on July 1, 2020 allowing tourists from all countries and nations to enter without restrictions. All normal ‘pre-covid’ entry requirements apply.[286]
  • Belarus: Belarus has not implemented any entry restrictions.[287]
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: As of 16 July 2020, Bosnia and Herzegovina has reopen borders for citizens of European Union with a negative test for coronavirus not older than 48 hours.[288] As of 12 September 2020, the country has reopen borders for all foreign tourists who have a negative PCR test for coronavirus.[289]
  • Guernsey: Guernsey has not implemented any entry restrictions, but imposed a requirement on all persons arriving in the Bailiwick from anywhere in the world (including Jersey and the UK) to self-isolate for 14 days on arrival. This is a legal requirement, and failure to comply is a criminal offence.[290]
  • Jersey: Jersey has not implemented any entry restrictions. From Friday 20 March, all travellers arriving in Jersey must now self-isolate for 14 days. This includes the UK, Guernsey, Europe and the rest of the world.[291]
  • Kosovo: As of 28 June 2020, Kosovo is officially open for tourism with no restrictions.[292]
  • North Macedonia: North Macedonia reopened its land borders on June 26 and its airports on July 1 for commercial traffic. Those entering the country will not be obliged to observe home quarantine for two weeks.[293]
  • Serbia: As of 22 May 2020, Serbia is allowing visitors to travel to the country under normal ‘pre-Covid’ regulations. That includes no mandatory testing and no isolation period for arriving tourists.[294]
  • Turkey: All passengers, of all nationalities, who meet Turkish immigration rules are permitted entry to Turkey from 12 June.[295]
  • Ukraine: As of 28 September 2020, Ukraine is officially open again for tourism.[296][297]
  • United Kingdom: The United Kingdom does not have entry restrictions, but from the 8 June, other than for certain exemptions and passengers from the common travel area, anyone arriving in the UK will have to self isolate at home or at government provided accommodation for 14 days and fill out a locator form before travel.[298] The United Kingdom is easing quarantine rules from 10 July. Passengers from the common travel area, British overseas territories, as well as Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, Croatia, Curaçao, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominica, Faroe Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Hong Kong, Iceland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Malta, Mauritius, Monaco, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, San Marino, Seychelles, South Korea, Spain, St Barthélemy, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Pierre and Miquelon, Switzerland, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Vatican City and Vietnam will not have to self isolate upon arrival in England, Wales or Northern Ireland. Scotland exempts the same countries/territories except from Spain and Serbia.[299][300][301]
  • European Union/Schengen Area:
    • Republic of Ireland: Ireland is not currently implementing any entry restrictions, but any person entering Ireland from abroad, including Irish citizens and residents of Ireland, must self-isolate for 14 days upon arrival. This includes Great Britain but not Northern Ireland. A green list of 15 countries was published by the Government of Ireland on 21 July from which people can travel without having to quarantine for 14 days upon arriving in Ireland, and will be reviewed on a fortnightly basis. People who arrive in Ireland from countries not on the green list will still have to restrict their movements.

Oceania

  • French Polynesia: As of 15 July 2020, French Polynesia is officially open for tourism. Arriving passengers must provide the results of a negative COVID-19 test taken within three days of arrival.[302]

See also

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Original content from Wikipedia, shared with licence Creative Commons By-Sa - Travel restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic